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Even today, it feels dangerous. David Cronenberg's vividly erotic thriller—about an underground cult that gets off on highway accidents—left censors hot and bothered. Britain approved it, though a local council barred the movie from screening in certain venues. And Italian critics demanded Cronenberg return his Cannes prize.
Seems some folks could use a little nookie. In , British filmmakers Alfred Hitchcock and Michael Powell both released prototypical slasher films foregrounding voyeuristic murderers. Powell, meanwhile, found his career detonated in the wake of Peeping Tom , a film whose examination of toxic fandom and empathy for the devil would prove decades ahead of its time. Critics savaged it. Censors ripped it to bits.
Finland banned it. Luis Buuel didn't pull any punches with his first two shorts. The minute "Un Chien Andalou" memorably features a woman's eyeball slit by a razor, while the minute L'Age d'Or, a scathing attack on bourgeois society, so incensed its first audiences that the financiers pulled it from distribution. Consider: Martin Scorsese pissed off the pious by showing Christ in love. Mel Gibson made millions by showing him being ripped apart for two straight hours. Sexual intercourse is implied rather than shown in this frenzied German film about a love triangle tame by today's standards.
But the close-ups of blushing Hedy Lamarr, in clear rapture during an illicit encounter with a hunky construction worker, were enough to raise the hackles of the National Legion of Decency, which banned its importation. Pope Pius XI publicly denounced it, which didn't help either. Moral pundits don't like seeing wanton sex, drug usage and criminal activities in movies; throw in underage teens doing all the above and you've got a bona fide uproar on your hands.
Photographer-turned filmmaker Larry Clark certainly didn't skimp on the adolescent bad behavior in his film debut scripted by budding auteur Harmony Korine , prompting accusations of child porn and forcing Miramax to buy back the movie from its parent company, Disney. Many predicted Spike Lee's incendiary take on Bed-Stuy race relations would stir up riots.
But the only trash cans hurled through pizzeria windows were verbal: Lee accused reviewers of blind prejudice, while heated editorials were plentiful. The film became a political football, and its provocative influence persists. Queer and feminist activists were vexed by Jonathan Demme's much-lauded chiller, due to its flamboyantly transsexual villain, Buffalo Bill, and his relish for skinning women.
Protests were held at screenings, and a clearly shaken Demme tried to atone with his next fiction feature, the courthouse AIDS drama, Philadelphia. Philip Kaufman's adventurous biopic about libidinous literary mavericks Henry Miller and Anais Nin proved that the new NC rating carried the same stigmas as its X predecessor, with media-outlet boycotts turning the film into cinema non grata. Overnight, Kaufman's erotic love story became a culture-wars flash point.
Forget the billing order: The breakout star s of this tawdry Western was Jane Russell's bust. Obsessive producer-director Howard Hughes featured Russell's assets prominently in both the movie and its leering promotional material. The outcry over immorality delayed general release for three years—at which point this mammary-obsessed pet project became a mammoth hit.
It doesn't matter that much of this "documentary" was faked director John Alan Schwartz, working under the name Conan le Cilaire, also played the leader of a flesh-eating cult. It still represents an essential rite of passage for thousands of teenage sleepovers, inculcating a taste for naughtiness. Monkey brains? All special effects. When Vilgot Sjman's sexually explicit Swedish drama was brought into this country, custom agents seized it at the airport.
Suddenly, this foreign film became a cause clbre; the case went all the way to the Supreme Court before obscenity charges were dropped. The bold movie paved the way for all the art-house smut and porn-chic that followed. Times Square hustlers, lowlife junkies and free-lovin' hippies—could suburban audiences stomach John Schlesinger's nightmarish New York City?
Oscar voters thought otherwise, though, making it the only "adults only" movie to win Best Picture. Fans of Brian De Palma's coke-laced remake owe themselves a visit to the original, considered wildly inappropriate in its day. Hollywood censors objected to the violence, the glamorization of crime and intimations of incest; they insisted on both a new ending and a new title, Scarface: The Shame of the Nation.
Megabucks producer Howard Hughes scoffed and disowned the edit. The movie became a fashionable urban sensation — no doubt to the delight of many men — and touched the culture at large with its appropriation in the Watergate scandal. Of course Lars von Trier was going to make our list; the question was only which film. Bring your appetite, leave with it spoiled.
Excruciating to watch, this Amazonian misadventure shot on location spurred massive outrage for its special effects being too good. A notorious scene of a naked woman's impalement actually led to the Italian director's arrest for murder. After those charges were successfully disputed, the movie was still widely banned due to incidents of animal abuse—which, alas, were not faked.
It's a key entry in the iconography of Clint Eastwood, and you won't find an action fan who can't recite the entire "Well, do you, punk? But during its release, the movie sparked a fierce war of words, with prominent critics calling it fascist, bigoted and unnecessarily brutal.
They had a point: Police in the Philippines ordered a print for training purposes. Plantation life is whitewashed into one big happy-slave playdate. Even during its production, the movie inspired accusations of racism—and don't get us started on the "Tar Baby" section.
It remains a taint on the Mouse House to this day. Paradoxically, the movie isn't all that gory—certainly not like some of the other entries on this list. Yet Tobe Hooper's proto—slasher film unsettled censors around the world, leading to its prohibition in such unlikely places as Sweden, Ireland and Brazil. A thick slab of barbecued menace, the thriller still inspires smart, young directors—and plenty of dumb ones, too. Wes Craven's still-nauseating tale of rape and revenge made many enemies on censor boards.
And U. Moral watchdogs were panicked at the time but viewers ran the risk of cultivating different addictions: a lifelong craving for elegant Saul Bass title sequences and propulsive Elmer Bernstein film scores. Step aside, Skins : For years, indie provocateur Larry Clark suffered or maybe relished attacks by critics, who called his photographs—and movies like Kids see No. Eventually, Clark decided to properly earn the outrage and make an extreme film. Ken Park , filled with depictions of underage sex, violence and suicide, never found a U.
Indie gadfly Vincent Gallo's mesmerizing road movie was a fiasco at Cannes: The molasses-slow pace sparked catcalls, an unsimulated oral-sex scene on the director-star himself dropped jaws, and Gallo had several pointed exchanges with detractor Roger Ebert. But Rog approved of the filmmaker's recut, which excised some flab and kept the blow job. Who says there are no happy endings? Five years still might have been too soon: Even though writer-director Paul Greengrass worked closely with the families of the flight victims notably not with that of German passenger Christian Adams, portrayed as an appeaser and reaped huge critical acclaim, his nerve-racking trailer stunned cinemagoers who weren't prepared.
One New York theater removed it after complaints. This was the first comedy about devirginization. Major studios like Paramount rarely offer provocations this nutso. Brief though it was, the Jennifer Lawrence—Darren Aronofsky romantic partnership will always have this bit of WTF to its lasting credit. An impressively exposed psychodrama about male artistic ego and the disposability of muses, Mother! Cherish that like a unicorn. Jean-Luc Godard's provocative update of the Virgin Mary story—featuring full-frontal nudity—was denounced by no less than the Pope, and one angry Christian threw a pie in the director's face at Cannes.
Godard's intention was to examine modern spirituality; the reaction he engendered, however, wasn't exactly full of grace. Riot police patrolled locations; no ice picks went unaccounted for. Ken Russell's crazed stew of sex, violence and religious impropriety in 17th-century France seared the eyes of film censors. So many cuts were demanded that several countries could claim their own versions. Italian tastemakers banned the movie outright, even though Russell won a Best Director award at the Venice Film Festival.
Frederick Wiseman's unflinching look inside a Massachusetts facility for the criminally insane was so disturbing and revealing that the state tried to permanently bury it. Authorities placed an injunction on public showings that wasn't lifted until It's one of the few movies banned for reasons other than obscenity, politics or immorality.
These days, it's not extraordinary for Hollywood to release a superviolent spectacle with a body count in the hundreds. But when feisty Sam Peckinpah did it, he pointedly evoked the ongoing war in Vietnam and created a blood-spouting whirlwind that confronted American righteousness. The Western genre never recovered. If this is our lowest-ranking title, you know we meant business. Meir Zarchi's scuzzy rape-revenge thriller also marketed under the name Day of the Woman limped into theaters, and was immediately banned all over the world.
Its most notorious scene, a bathtub seduction that comes to an edge, inspired critical derision, but also, provocatively, a wave of feminist cheers. So many options, but which to pick? Consult our ranked list of the very best movies on Netflix streaming.
About us. Contact us. Photograph: Courtesy Paramount Pictures Mother! Edited by Joshua Rothkopf Thursday 9 December Discover the best of the city, first. We already have this email. Try another? Most controversial movies ever made. The Last Temptation of Christ Read more. Triumph of the Will The Birth of a Nation A Clockwork Orange Freaks Film Horror.
Viridiana Last Tango in Paris Bonnie and Clyde Film Thrillers. Poison Straw Dogs Film Drama. In the Realm of the Senses Cruising Life of Brian Pink Flamingos The Exorcist Crash Peeping Tom The Passion of the Christ Ecstasy Kids Do the Right Thing The Silence of the Lambs In the middle of this montage, as the man reads the letter, an extreme close-up highlights a single teardrop rolling down the sheet of paper. Like the older man in the scene mentioned above, Carla, too, feels the loss of family members—in her case, her parents, two opera singers who left Cuba for the United States who send her periodic postcards from Miami featuring overweight women on the beach, sirens of capitalism and symbols of complacent consumer culture.
The chipped surface of the seawall and the pockmarked sidewalk stand in for the grating emotional wear of familial separation. There are days when you are God, Dad, and that bridges the distance between us. And, this is precisely what Nada does in the end when Carla renounces the lottery slot that would allow her to leave Cuba for the United States.
If everybody leaves, nothing changes. This minute short pre- sents interviews with a number of so-called frikis [freaks], young men mar- ginalized by society who love heavy metal and other types of hard-driving English-language rock music. In another par- ticularly lyrical sequence, a slow tracking shot leads us down a hallway and into a room with a rocking chair and crib void of human presences.
Nor does it suggest that the experiences of this marginal ized sector of young adults is somehow representative of all Cuban youth. Rather, the documentary situ- ates the young men as an important, if ignored, part of a larger whole. In its dogged attention to subjectivities, it rallies against the dominant articulation of youth as eternal militant. I want to conclude by taking a brief look at similar debates about contempo- rary U. Now in their sixties, the Boomers wish to retain the characterization of youth that emerged in the s as the template through which to see all subsequent generations of youth 35, 40, 43; also cited in Moore, This quick overview of the U.
If only in the case of Cuba did the insurgency lead to a full-scale revolution, armed guerilla movements in Argentina and elsewhere success- fully destabilized political institutions and, more indirectly, economic struc- tures. Or at least this was the dominant perception that right-wing groups appropriated to justify the numerous military coups that took place in Brazil — , Chile — , Argentina — , and elsewhere.
Yet, given this often-bloody historical context, it is much more problematic for the Latin American contemporaries of the U. Unlike recent U. Sarlo, 18—23, 41—55, 57— In Brazil most cinemagoers are between 14 and 25 years old, and it is this audience that has drawn the interest of global capital like Warner Bros. Translations provided by author, unless otherwise noted.
Consult the archives of the on-line jour- nals FilmOnLine www. See Jabbaz and Lozano, 99, for a summary of such comments and Trigo, —, for an overview of similar critiques of contemporary Uruguayan youth articulated by both those on the Right and the Left.
See for example Jabbaz and Lozano, and Guelerman. Martorell, — See Martorell and Kaiser for more in-depth analyses. Indeed, they might be reworking notions of the public sphere and perhaps of civil society itself. This possibility is mapped out by Paolo Carpignano et al. See also Kaufman, 15, 20—22, 26, for similar arguments in the case of Argentina.
With vibrant images and rhythm, the audience is introduced to this situation from the perspective of one of the chickens that is waiting to be cooked. Held by the foot, the chicken watches as another chicken is killed and plucked. The visible anxiety of the animal is underlined by the fast editing and the pagode rhythm, which gets increas- ingly faster, reminding us of a music video.
Suddenly, the chicken escapes. Managing to alter momentarily the fate that awaits it, the chicken is sud- denly stranded between its hunters and a young black man with a fright- ened expression who is carrying a camera. He is the narrator of the story, nicknamed Rocket, and he has, in his own turn, the police chasing him.
The police aim their guns at the drug dealers and vice versa. Between them are the chicken and Rocket. The same sequence is shown at the end of the movie, followed by the out- come of the story. I analyze here how this movie introduces the survival strategies and life perspectives of the poor young slum inhabitants, making an analogy with the representations and meanings associated with chickens in Brazilian cul- ture, as well as the cinematic elements used by the director that allow the establishment of such an analogy.
Aesthetic, sociological, and political questions were raised in various analyses of the movie, luring millions of people to the theaters. The public responded promptly to the publicity that urged audiences to see a big-screen representation of the daily violence com- mon in Brazilian cities. Throughout recent decades, this overlap reached into cultural consumption patterns because of the development of mass media. If identity through citi- zenship was not a reality, the search of identity through consumption re- mained an option.
The primary characteristic of this new kind of violence was that it be- came a means to reach social-economical ascension, social recognition, and power. The beginning of these transformations dates back to the s and s, a time that coincides with the urban reforms in Rio de Janeiro that moved slums from the Southern Zone of the city to regions farther from the city center and the coast. During this removal, Cidade de Deus was created. City of God is a well-crafted movie, with an aesthetic that in some mo- ments is similar to a music video and in others reminds us of an action movie.
These techniques, however, are used to tell a story that deals with sensitive issues in this moment of Brazilian history, such as misery, urban violence, the lack of social policies, and corruption. The use of children in scenes that portrayed graphic violence was also criticized. Chickens have many representations in Brazilian culture. Chickens were in fact brought to Brazil by Portuguese settlers. There are plenty of negative expressions in colloquial Brazilian Portu- guese that use the image of chickens.
However, the chicken can also be as- sociated with the idea of work. It is seen as a productive, submissive, and servile animal that remains linked to the home and circulates within the yard since its wings do not allow it to see the world from another perspective.
This makes us associate the escape of the chicken with an attempt that sooner or later will be frustrated. On the other hand, this association concerns mainly the Brazilian public, or the public familiar with Brazilian culture, which relates to the situations shown in the movie.
The young man becomes the main character who will manage to break the cycle of violence that surrounds him and blow the whistle on the atrocities perpe- trated in a space that exists outside the lives of the audience: the slums.
The poster used in the Brazilian market, by con- trast, suggests a link between the characters and the audience through the continuity of both images young men with guns and the chicken , and the association between the proverb and the images. The audience is placed in a position far from the story that will be shown in the movie. Other posters were created to publicize the movie in other markets, but the image of the chicken is present only in those used in Brazil and in some other Latin American countries.
In City of God, the narrative is characterized by its circularity, expressed in the recurrence of dangerous and unsafe situations to which the characters are exposed in the slums. Few scenes take place outside the slums, and of these, most are indoor scenes, giving an idea of the boundaries imposed on the characters by the lack of perspective. These are move- ments that go back to a starting point in a journey that repeats itself like the movement of a boomerang.
It is through his point of view that other stories are introduced. Even using stop motion and divided screens in many moments and showing incidents from the perspective of other charac- ters, it is Rocket who tells the story. After all, Rocket grew up in the slums and, like most of the young people of his generation, found himself divided between a life of poverty, resignation, and social exclusion, on the one hand, and the violent criminal life led by most of his childhood friends, on the other.
Refusing to accept these two options, he tries to break the cycle of poverty and violence in which he grew up and to change his destiny through photography. However, in order to do this, he must break his link with the vicious circle of the slums, an environment in which the only two options are those previously discussed and one that, ironically, Rocket will manage to expose, but not to change.
When he chooses not to show a picture of a policeman being bribed by a drug dealer, Rocket makes a movement in two directions: he manages to leave the slums, but he does not manage to reach the safety he desires and to outline the spaces of order and disorder, of law and crime.
His life is still menaced by other powers whose limits do not lie within the space of the slums. It is a kind of initiation ritual not only into crime, but also into a new phase in life in which the passport is the substitution of a real gun for a toy gun. His coming-of-age is represented by increasingly violent scenes.
His aging process and his power are represented by a sequence of scenes por- traying slaughters that he leads. Power and money become mixed, and unlimited violence becomes the means to attain them. You gotta wait until they die. The exception is the character of Knockout Ned, who becomes a criminal during his adult life because of honor and not power. This episode allows us to see two important aspects. On one hand, the absence of any state-sponsored system of justice in the slums, which is why Knockout Ned seeks his own.
Such sexual immaturity becomes a strong feature of all the characters and is the element that reminds us of how young they really are. Social and emotional maturity is out of synch for Rocket too. He feels an ongoing platonic love for Angelica, a white middle-class teenage girl he will never be able to reach, just like the safety and the freedom outside the slums. Sexuality for the young people in the movie is always associated with dangerous situations. Finally, the lack of alternatives is represented by an almost total lack of reference to spaces outside the slums.
When shown, these spaces are indoor sets. Their perspectives are limited by insecurity and fear and are represented by indoor sets and by the verticalization of the slums. At the same time that the vio- lence increases, the shots become more closed and the experiences of the youngsters are left at the mercy of the powers at war.
Popular and contemporary musical rhythm with roots in the samba—a new style of samba. Revista de Estudos Interdisciplinares 5, no. This dual and complementary image is expressed by the great number of reports based on statistical research, academic or commissioned by the media, that indicate the spatial advance of crime rates to urban areas that until then were middle-class strongholds. Revista de Estu- dos Interdisciplinares 5, no. Folha Ilustrada, Sept. Criticism by sociologist Alba Zaluar and by rapper MV Bill published by the press upon the release of the movie.
I am committed to what is real in the work of art and not immediately with the historical reality that we want to change. There is nothing strictly new in the movie City of God. Everyday the news throws on our faces the chaos in which we live. Maybe this is the reason of the controversy. As a writer, I had a commitment to reach for the imagination of those who are socially segregated, to be credible, to warn people about what the aw- ful income distribution in Brazil is doing, to incite the creation of forums on racism, abandon of the elderly, negligence of our children by the government, widespread vio- lence, police arbitrariness and corruption, to question the lack of public, social and cultural policies.
Lins, Still, with the exception of the beach, these places are shown from inside. Islamic families are en- titled to educate their children in order to allow them to follow the Quran and the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. Muslim daughters want to wear the veil, whereas their parents disapprove. They even stress that obedience to parents has to be secondary to obedience to Allah.
Hetata himself is the son of two renowned Egyptian intellectuals: his father, Sherif Hetata, is a famous civil rights activist, and his mother, Nawal El Sadaawi b. He has not been heard of since the Iran-Iraq War.
Mohammed strictly disapproves of this, as he con- siders them to be materialistic, westernized, and decadent. Mohammed attends high school because his mother wants him to be- come a pilot. But life at school is hard. The classes consist of almost 50 boys each. Mohammed does not have any friends at school, mainly be- cause his parents are divorced. Thus, Mohammed feels alone, and he does not have anyone to talk with about his awakening sexuality.
He feels in- trigued by almost every woman near him, even by his mother. Shaikh Khalid tells Mohammed about the im- purity of his sexual desires, especially when his mother is involved. He fur- ther advises Mohammed to show responsibility toward his mother as well as for his own life and to marry at a very early age. Later, he even arranges a marriage between Mohammed and one of his relatives, and between Fatma and one of his supporters.
With its population of almost 16 million people, Cairo is the biggest city in the Middle East. Mohammed befriends a young dropout named Awadine. Awadine persuades him to play truant from school. They also work as street vendors. Awadine becomes the only friend Mohammed ever had. Mohammed con- siders his new life on the streets to be exciting and full of a freedom he has never known before.
On the other hand, he knows that this is not the life his mother or Shaikh Khalid wants him to lead. Mohammed is shocked as well as jealous: he tells his mother not to leave the house with- out a veil and forbids her to work. He vanishes into the darkness and dis- appears. When the story resumes six years later, Amaan is presumed dead, but his mother and Fiza still believe he is alive and will return one day.
Fiza, who has graduated from college and plans to be a journalist, one day be- lieves that she sees her brother on the streets and decides to search for him. Fiza persuades him to return with her to Bombay, but problems arise. Khalid Mohamed wants to show that the problems that the Mus- lim youth have might drive them into terrorism. Hindu as well as Muslim young people face the same situation in modern India—unemployment or violence. In the end, young people like Amaan have to realize that religious sentiments and communalism are only exploited by political leaders betray- ing the masses.
The male protagonist Amaan is shown joining such a group. Neither do we see any religious teachers preaching to the masses. The fundamentalism of the Egyptian Islamists is of another kind J. Clark Their aim is to replace his government with an Islamic state. They have huge circles of adherents who meet in the local mosques.
Sometimes, big gather- ings take place in a mosque outside Cairo. Fatma plainly re- jects this, and gives up her job. Father Ikramullah died several years earlier, and his daughter Fiza is full of bitterness as a result. Thus, Moham- med is left without any male guidance or male role model. This is the reason why the group around Shaikh Khalid seems to be so attractive to young men: the shaikh has a soft and gentle voice and seems to know everything about life.
The inner circle of the group consists of men, whereas women daughters and wives are only entitled to be married to followers of the group and to give birth to the next generation of followers. They further have to share the religious interpreta- tions of their husbands. Because of the worldwide economic crisis, a growing number of women and young people have to work in order to sustain their families. Al-Abwab depicts the serious problem of unemployment in Egyptian societies and how it creates trouble among family members.
At the same time, everyday life is full of repression: for example, there is a lot of military drill at school. The classes consist of 50 pupils or more, and only those who pay for additional lessons will pass the examinations. There is no place for creativity, individual support, or intellectual freedom in the school system. On the contrary, children have to put up with punish- ment and humiliation from their teachers, as well as from their classmates.
Although his classmates are the same age and have the same questions about sexuality, nobody will help him. Even kissing sequences are only hinted at. The image of women has recently changed toward a more active role, as women are no longer submit- ting to men. Insaaf ka tarazu The Scales of Justice, B.
Of course, rape itself was only hinted at. For example, when Fiza ap- plies for a job, she is sexually harassed. Let me meet you in the evening. But Fiza does not consider herself to be a victim. She shouts at him, telling him to keep his thoughts to himself, and even throws a pail of water in his face. Indeed, in India there has been an increase in the public awareness of both the sexual abuse of women and child sexual abuse.
The director of al-Abwab portrays children not only as victims of sexual violence, but also as perpetrators. Mohammed, for example, enacts sexual violence on two occasions. In one scene, he meets a girl of his own age who brings him some tea. She belongs to the group and may be a relative of Shaikh Khalid. She is completely veiled, wearing even a black veil and black gloves. Mohammed asks the girl for her name, but she seems to be very shy and does not answer his question.
Then Mohammed asks the girl to take away the veil, but she refuses. After having asked her for the third time, Mo- hammed simply tears away the veil in front of her face. In the Islamic world, veiling of women is strongly connected with erotic and sexual desires. Thus, tearing away the veil is tantamount to taking away her honor.
She does not remain an anony- mous veiled girl, but becomes a visible human being with a name. The subtle message thus might be: tear down the veils of Islamist Islam, and what you get is a soft female? Islam of the human kind. The second time Mohammed becomes a perpetrator of sexual violence is when he sexually harasses his neighbor, Zeinab. Mohammed feels very much attracted to her, but he also feels contempt for her because of her life- style, her open-mindedness, and her sexual allure. Zeinab, on the other hand, does not take Mohammed seriously.
He and his best friend, Farfat, were both sexually abused by their employer, and Farfat has been defamed as a homosexual by people from their village. His father does not want to understand his problems and even beats him. Hachemi and Farfat try to get away from their problems and go to a brothel. Violence and fanaticism are interpreted as the consequence of the exaggera- tion of masculinity. In the beginning we can see Amaan laughing and joking with his mother and his sister.
We can also see him laughing. Later he is even shown as a vul- nerable man and as a victim. After Amaan returns to Bombay, he sees a comedian in a park. He is perfectly handling the nunchako [two sticks connected by a chain or a rope]. This creates an aura of invulnerability and control Preckel b, ; Shary , His muscles and physical abilities are the embodiment of mascu- linity [rajuliyat].
They are, on the one hand, a sign for the pan-Islamic solidarity; on the other hand, they are a symbol of the rebellion against injustice. By means of these symbols, the male protago- nist undergoes a process of anonymization and dehumanization. After Amaan vanishes, she is no longer enduring her role as a victim of male violence. She decides not to submit to her fate [qadar] like her mother does but starts actively searching for her brother. This masculinization is additionally seen in the clothes Fiza wears.
Later, during the search for her brother, she wears jeans and a blouse. Aggression and violence proceed from male members of the Muslim community. The excessive lifestyle of male Islam makes men, as well as women, victims. Out of the feeling of despair, women also undergo masculinization and commit acts of violence and destruction. The result is that traditional family values are destroyed and the intact family is no longer durable. The implication is that with the destruction of the family, the survival of the whole nation is endangered.
There are several parallels between al-Abwab al-moghlaka and Fiza. Al- though Mohammed does not have exceptional physical features, as Amaan does, one can say that he undergoes a masculinization, too. Especially in his face, one can see his soft features, which remind us of a boy. His features become hard, and he dresses more like a typical Egyptian adult than as a boy. For example, he leaves aside his sneakers Western symbols , which are a present from his father.
He is convinced that he has to assume all responsibilities for his family. He also wants to reverse the roles of the one who has the authority parents and the one who has to obey child. This means that Mohammed should observe his family members and correct their behavior when necessary. Mohammed and his mother start to argue about this: he tells her that she should not leave home, and if it becomes necessary, she should be veiled.
God told all women not to leave home. Thus, you are a sinner. Obedience is not accorded to a sinner. They were told to act—even to kill—in the name of religion. But they have to see that Islam does not sanction acts of terrorism or violence. Consequently, terrorism is seen as an escalation and exaggera- tion of masculinity,7 and aggression and violence stem from male members of the Muslim community.
The doors of open-mindedness and humanity are shut by some radical people, who believe they have solutions for all social and political problems in their countries. The war was caused by disagreements over the border between the two countries.
More than 1 million soldiers are said to have been killed during the war. For further reading see Morris M. El-Azhary, ed. Ex- tremities Robert M. Young, U. Eke, Kenneth W. For the depiction of adolescent homosexuality in American cinema, see Shary , —, and Shary , 94— You are learning western music: Bach, Beethoven, and Strauss. You are from Istanbul. You are a Turk. Founded in , the Republic of Turkey made a radical break with its formidable predecessor, the Ottoman Empire, by constructing a republi- can state based on Western models.
An extensive program of reforms rooted in European models and French laicism changed the alphabet from Arabic to Latin script, westernized the calendar, and outlawed Islamic forms of dress, including the red hat known as a fez itself a product of nineteenth- century westernizing reforms and the full-body veil worn by women. Struc- tural changes such as legal and educational reform were made tangible and visible through signs of everyday life, including writing and dress. State pro- grams reformed the arts, discouraging traditional Ottoman forms in favor of a synthesis of Western and folk traditions.
Yet this centralized program could not completely reform the populace in its image. While many ideological groups agree that Turkey must forge a bridge between East and West, the type of bridge has always been a contested issue. Countering the republican cultural projects, one such alternative project for a bridge came from the conservative religious right. He wanders toward a group of her friends, who are singing to the accompaniment of a guitar, playing a John Sebastian tune.
She asks in English if he is Turkish, to which he responds that he is from China; then she begins to tease her friends by claiming that they are both Afghani. Thus Mehmet, eager to return home to serve his people, comes to criticize Leyla for reject- ing her roots. Together, they tour Austria, stopping at museums commemo- rating Ottoman incursions into the area. Salzberg, birthplace of Mozart who composed Rondo Alla Turca , becomes the backdrop for their discussion of the relative merits of Turkish and Western culture.
The museums, of course, present the Turks as invaders, while for Mehmet they symbolize the historic might of the empire. As they travel, the sound track shifts between limpid examples of classical music and powerfully heroic Turkish folk songs that celebrate historic battles against Europe. Leaving for Turkey, Mehmet criti- cizes Leyla for behaving like a Viennese girl, uprooted from her own culture. She soon returns to Turkey, delights her grandmother by learning Turkish music, and goes in search of Mehmet.
By the time she gets to him, it is too late: he is al- ready married to a properly Turkish woman. Thus the makers of the Turkish state adopted the imperialist problem of for- mulating the East in the image of the West, reproducing the imperialist ethos within a nationalist ideology. Tahir proposed that the path against the ills of westernization should pass through socialism; Turkish Islamists shared this revulsion against the West. For him, the technology and reason of the West will solve every- day problems but not the ills of any society, which can only be eliminated with the introduction of Islamic ideology.
Turkish popular cinema emerged despite the plans of the educated elite, whose projects disregarded tradition and ethnicity in favor of nationalist modernization programs. Thus genres like clas- sical Ottoman music were ignored while Western classical music and opera, along with modernized versions of folk music, were favored. The new na- tional culture had to be disseminated to all of the regions within the borders of Turkey, regardless of local ethnic identities. In spite of this public debate, the issue tackled by Memleketim was never directly addressed by the social engineers of the re- public.
In this vacuum, popular works like Memleketim emerged, taking on issues already ideologically coded in other art forms. In other words, this problem of essence is attached to the originary mythos of the nation-state: it is a problem of origin. The s marked the start of the integration of Turkey into global capitalist markets and a relative process of democratiza- tion.
Far from a radical Islamism, this mainstream movement consisted of a democratic response to religiosity which the mili- tant secularism of republican reform had consistently rejected. Turkish laicism, much like its French counterpart, does not allow the headscarf in schools and governmen- tal institutions. What seems more important is related to the politics of dress codes.
In terms of male clothes, the Western-style suits are gener- ally accepted by the Islamists, too. Dress reform has always been an arena characterized by sharp gender dif- ferences. While the westernization of dress for men required them to replace fezes and turbans with hats, and baggy trousers with European suits, this sar- torial shift did not go against religious stipulations.
In contrast, the elimina- tion of the veil from the public sphere directly opposed Islamic traditions of the physical seclusion of women in the public sphere. As a result, Islamist men can attend school, while women are stopped at the doors of public buildings, including schools, for wearing a headscarf.
They reproduce the dialectical formations of the stresses between indigenous cul- ture and westernization. Life in the neighborhood is pictured as happy, much like the idyllic south of D. But the entry of modern apartments brings in upper-class residents, threatening the inner harmony of the neighborhood.
Is this the threat of modernization and westerniza- tion, or is this a threat brought in by the new upper-class residents? In other words, they enact the Pygmalion story, common in popular melodramas, in reverse. In such a search, Feyza makes a bet about one of her friends, a class- mate of Bilal, that she will make him come to her birthday party and dance at the party.
Romance is laid out in romantic comedy fashion; movement toward the climax of play—the birthday party scene—is slowly constructed through the cultural clash between Bilal and Feyza. Feyza marries a rich businessman who turns out to be a gambler and a criminal; Bilal marries a lower-class woman. Again, a lavish, upper-class life is contrasted with a lower-class life through the depiction of romantic relationships. This is not a physical or psychologi- cal crisis; it is a result of the absence of a moral and spiritual education.
This education requires that they be freed from the complexes of westernization and directed to our own sources. This theme of opposite cultures and lifestyles is reinforced by several secondary themes. The history teacher claims that Cyprus belongs to the Turks, and he opposes Turkish culture to Western culture, which is based on Greek and Roman cultures.
Moreover, the distinction between Muslim students and others has been emphasized particularly by assigning the non-Muslim characteristics to other Turks. Passing through such vices, Serpil de- cides to buy dates from an old street vendor for breaking the fast in the eve- ning.
As she returns back to her upper-class apartment complex, she goes to the room of her sick grandmother Nevin Aypar. Her grandmother is treated by traditional herbal drugs, and Serpil, who is a medical student, criticizes her for not trusting in modern medicine. As her anatomy class leads her into deep thoughts about death, her friends keep partying, drinking, and doing drugs. Eventually, Serpil buys some Islamic books, despite the disapproval of her parents, who go to the parties of westernized Turkish elites and talk about the advantages of good relations with the U.
In an existential crisis, she decides to learn more about herbal drugs. She learns from Murtaza that, beyond the realm of modern, synthetic drugs, there is a metaphysical connection between sickness and treatment. Her mother decides that she has lost her mind and thus needs professional help. They do not even get much support from young Islamist men, who do not have to contend with prohibitions against their attire.
Neither do the girls get support from their Muslim friends, and their westernized parents are against them. From an interview with the author on Aug. Instead, unlike other presidents or prime ministers, he wears regular suits with ties. Vigil opens as a narrative of loss. The sudden separa- tion and moment of blind panic during the storm provide a portent of im- minent tragedy.
As Toss watches from the opposite hill, her father slides down to retrieve it. There is an uneasy hesitation, then the sound of rocks giving way; suddenly, Justin slips and plummets to his death below. Grief-stricken, Liz shares an unspoken understanding with Toss.
Liz quietly sews a ballet tutu for her by the light of an open window and later, one afternoon, dons tights to model graceful dance movements for her daughter when they practice side by side in the barn. Toss believes that she may have made Ethan appear by magic in her binocular lens and thus attributes certain super- human powers to him.
Eager to help in the business of docking and tailing the lambs, she approaches Ethan, who is sharpening his knife. She swoons from the shock, reeling beneath the force of such visceral vio- lence. Perched in a nearby tree, Toss is privy to their impassioned gestures and cries. Afterward, Toss watches while the two ferociously devour leftover scraps of meat, while sharing un- intelligible utterances.
At night, Toss lies in her bed, where she dreams of a duel between Ethan and her father. Toss soon drifts into an uneasy sleep and has another unsettling dream. Suddenly, Ethan drops down from the sky and assails her head with electric sheers, recalling the celebrated dream scene from E. Toss screams and wakes up sud- denly, carefully touching her head to ascertain that it is still in place. Feeling a moist sensation, she reaches under her jacket and, when she extracts her hand, sees that it is covered in blood.
Frightened, she alerts her grandfather to the fact that she is dying. His departure, which doubles her inaugural loss of her father, allegorically demarcates the traumatic period of readjustment experienced by New Zealanders, who, divested of their privileged trade relation with the British in the mids, were subsequently forced to adapt to their new am- bivalent status Molloy, According to Maori legend, their tribal ancestor Paikea rode into the village on the back of a whale.
Grief-stricken, her father, Porourangi, departs for Europe to pursue a career producing modernist sculpture, leaving Pai behind with her paternal grandfather, Koro, the Whangara village chief, and her grandmother, Nanny Flowers. The novel explains that the male voice of the whale rider, Paikea, possesses a supernatural quality that allows him to com- municate with the whales and command them. During a slide presentation of his recent work, Porourangi adds insult to injury when he confesses to his audience of curious spectators that he is involved with a German woman, Ana, who is pregnant with his child.
Porourangi later asks Pai if she would like to return with him to his new home in Germany, and initially, Pai agrees to accompany him. Summoned home by the mystical sounds of the sea, Pai stands at the threshold of the meetinghouse, where she greets her grandfather. While the meetinghouse clearly serves as the focal point of the Whangara settlement, it forecloses the femi- nine voice, thereby reinforcing the sense of the unhomely in the home for women.
Pai then replies to her grandmother from the visiting side and, following the tradi- tion of the pai arahi [leaders over the threshold], leads the boys who process to the marae tea, the central space between the hosts and guests during a welcome.
Yet Koro insists that Pai sit behind the men rather than among them, thus prohibiting her participation. Gender division on the marae, as Salmond points out, is based upon the principle that men are tapu [sacred], whereas women are noa [common] A woman can only stand to speak on the marae if her birth is so high that her mana [prestige] overrides her noa status, and, as Salmond notes, this rare occurrence is possible only in certain tribes The sea and its creatures remain inaccessible to her grandfather and his male students, however.
Still searching for a future chief, Koro takes the boys to an isolated inlet where he throws his rei puta [whale tooth] pendant into the ocean. Koro is devastated when none surface with it and blames Pai for their fail- ure, insisting that she leave their home. From the dark still solitude, Koro calls on the ancient ones.
His lament is drawn from that of Paikea, who had called on the ancient ones when his canoe sank. Newcomers to New Zealand, the cosmopolitan Bentons are portrayed as colonial usurpers who embody the potential threat of ferocious international competition. I leap over and through the waves, free and triumphant. At the time of the Great Fleet, Muriwai and the sisters of the Matatua canoe sighted a good landing place at Whakatane Irwin, 15; Sal- mond, Treacherous tides dislodged the canoe, which proceeded to drift out to sea.
She commanded her crew and managed to paddle the Matatua to safety, saving them all from certain destruction. In her unique ability to transform the village landscape through the traditional gestures, language, and songs of the Maori, Pai usurps the traditionally male role of the storyteller and rewrites the initial scenario of loss as a narrative of resistance.
This solemn moment serves as a mythic site where the past becomes the present, where the natural environment blends with the supernatural and where a broken male lineage is restored in its association with the feminine. For example, since as early as , when Time began publishing, girls appeared on the cover of that magazine once per year in most years; but, starting in they ap- peared several times nearly every year.
In other words, anxiety discourse incites an endless supply of more discourse—whether anx- ious, defensive, or celebratory—about girls. Nevertheless, in this essay I argue that the ways in which the reviews maintain this focus contribute to the continued displacement of U. Both Erin Addison, in her discussion of Aladdin, and Ella Shohat, in her discussion of media coverage of the early- s United States war against Iraq, point out that white men function as saviors in the respective narratives.
I base this argument on a review of national U. I should be clear that this is not an argument about audience, extrapolated from the reviews. Rather, I am interested in examining how the U. I turn now to an analysis of each of these themes, in turn. This as- sociation of authenticity and patriarchy then displaces gender issues to else- where. Even to this day. This story could be read to reveal that gender in this culture is neither static nor simplistic.
The reviewers, however, re- port the story as evidence of the supposedly timeless rule that girls are not allowed to use the sticks. But few articles mention this background, and this is the only article I found in which Ihimaera makes the point that the whale, itself, is a symbol of patriarchy. They may tell stories about girls, those girls may be power- ful and in control of themselves, and they may even confront racism, sex- ism, and the legacy of colonialism in their lives, naming and challenging it, but they do so outside of time, against an othered patriarchy and in a uni- versal space that is neither uncomfortably here nor obtusely there.
In this way feminism remains lily- white thereby allowing, of course, for an implicit critique of it for its white- ness and social disconnectedness. But Jess. And that works. And, importantly, it is safe, soft, and painless because of its explicit connection to that timeless, patriarchal, authentic Indian culture. Thus, in the U. Rather, my purpose here is to detail the way in which the U.
The result is the denigration of U. Nevertheless, these discourses emerge in the context of what I describe in the introduction to this essay as an incitement to discourse about girls in contemporary U. It just feels like a lot because we have some. We care less about gender in our programs and more about kids. Accessed November 4, Released Sept. Released Oct. However, because this essay focuses on the U. In Bend It Like Beckham one scene draws a parallel between being Indian in London and being Irish in London, emphasizing the shared experience of minoritization and the legacy of colonialism.
Of course I understand what that feels like. Knightley got plenty of press coverage of her own, of course, especially after the re- lease of Pirates of the Caribbean As Therese Saliba points out in the context of U. In this case, however, I focus on reviews that are not written from an Indian American perspective and that, I would argue, tend to simplify—rather than complicate—the relationships among race, ethnicity, and food.
Also see Edelstein. This is not actually true. Also see Toumarkine March and Ebert, March 12, Also see Dawtrey. Also see Ansen and Gire. Also see Cruz. Do you feel that way in your real life? Like, boys are kind of unheard. Karan, 95 Also see Strauss. Also see Macdonald, June 20, Also see Chordas. Also see Ebert, July 2, Also see Kleinschrodt. Also see Rainer. Cited in Mills. For example, Derek T.
Buescher and Kent A. When technological and social change are particularly rapid, as happened at the time of the Industrial Revolution, for example, machines learn to do work and come to replace human adults in the economy. It becomes thinkable to delay the onset of adult- hood, that period of life when the responsibility to work and the rewards of working fall—usually in some unequal measure—upon the shoulders of the socialized. Capitalism and mass technological society needed the high school as a hold- ing pen for young people for whom, though they could surely copulate and endure the rigors of the workplace just as well as their parents, a base of operations was not yet legitimated in society.
School became an elaborate delaying mechanism for those who needed the opportunity to—as Edgar Z. In greater and greater numbers as the sexual revolution of the s wore to its close, adolescents simply had to be kept from exploding, kept from themselves, kept from their world, and kept out of the job market as long as possible. During the Second World War, more and more women became teachers. Well in advance of the massacre there between a. Near the camera more girls run past, a particularly gawky one of these, Michelle Kristen Hicks , stopping suddenly to look up at the sky in wonder and then resuming her pace in slowed motion.
We dolly after him as he walks through some trees to the school building. The ground dips down a slope and the camera stops, watching as he continues to walk away. Smaller and smaller he becomes as we see him approach and then enter the building through a side door.
Watching this, we sense where Nathan is at each instant, what is around him, what direction he has chosen, how his relatively unconstructed, shape- less, and more feelingful body movement outside is slowly recomposed as he soberly heads back to school routine. We can easily imagine that Nathan and his classmates spend their days modulating between loose, erotic, engaged behavior outside under the sky, and restrained, orderly, timetabled, extraor- dinarily guided activity required inside.
That Nathan does not struggle as he glides can mean he is one of those who are very accustomed to being constrained in this place. What this sequence seems like on the screen is something else again. No matter what the kids are doing, their activity and relationships are less important by far than their separation from the place, from one another, and from the meaning of their actions.
Other sequences are arranged in the same disconnected, even hallucina- tory, way. Death will enter this setting, taking many of these young people. Later, fol- lowing the tale of Alex and Eric, we will come to know what is in the gym bags. Their gym bags contain auto- matic weapons, and they have come here today to commit mass murder. The camera slowly pans around the room, catching walls covered with pinned-up drawings, his bed strewn with papers, a radio, a sound sys- tem, a drawing of an elephant, a television with rabbit ears.
Like the victims in the computer game and like Nathan walking down the corridor, the pianist is a human cipher, a head on a torso, not an expressive face. Together the two boys sit on the couch and visit www.
Alex and Eric can hardly be seen as responsible, alone, for what they do in this powerful context. As metaphor, this suggests that viewed from an institutional perspective, the American young are to be understood as moving toward the future. It would only be im- portant as a stepping-stone toward the next generation, and it would have no direct relation to the divine. Those spiritual and intellectual values that remain untouched by the process of aging, together with the values of the next stage of life, must compensate for what has been lost.
Edgar Z. His girlfriend Acadia Alicia Miles walks in, approaches him, quickly kisses the side of his head and moves on to sex education class, leaving him to recuperate with the generalized belief that everything will be better at some point in the future. John, indeed, is one of the people who survives. When Theo loses the movie charade game, Isabelle forces him to pay the forfeit of masturbating in front of her and Matthew. Later, when Matthew loses, Theo forces him to make love to Isabelle in his pres- ence.
Spending all their time together, the three become inseparable, until, in a raucous climax, they are awakened in the middle of the night by a mob chanting in the street outside. Running out to join in the protest—it is the time for the revolution of the young! Dans la rue! Was Chaplin better than Keaton or Keaton better than Chaplin? Together, Isabelle, Theo, and Matthew are alive, indeed scintillating with life. The youth of Elephant do not give appear- ances of feeling this hunger.
One of us! In the very next shot, it is pouring rain. Surely what has changed since , beyond the face of our social order—Watergate, home computers, the Internet, crack cocaine, AIDS, the oil crisis—is the meaning of our sex. It is now perfunc- tory, even a form of exercise. Every- one who can write a sentence is educated about sex, to the point of tedium, and sexual identity is bandied about as a basis for politically correct inter- personal relations.
When he lies naked with the two of them through the night in a tent Isabelle has concocted in the living room, with candles burning and bottles of Burgundy half consumed all around, Matthew has learned what feelings are. Worth considering are the two scenes of cleansing that, in a way, center both movies. Each has pro- jected the self outward in an embrace—an embrace that crosses the bound- aries of gender and class, nationality and political belief, merging strangers through the love of art and the love of love.
In Elephant, by contrast, Eric and Alex shower together before suiting up to go out for the kill. Eric enters, removes his underwear, opens the stall door and steps in. Swiftly we cut, and they are loading guns into the car.
These are two who have not, to be sure, known the kind of love that Matthew is shown in Paris. But more, they have transcended the body en- tirely. So it is that some young people are dreamers of unities while others prepare invasion, invasion to obliterate the past.
Yet, while Dani is in love with Nico, Nico is in love with a girl who is also on holiday in this coastal town. Recent studies suggest that the age of emancipa- tion of young people in Spain continues to increase due to the high cost of housing and instability of jobs Requena, 1— Spanish critics such as Mon- terde and Trenzado Romero have argued that the family setting features so prominently in Spanish cinema due to its multifunctional narra- tive potential.
His father, a former Metro driver who had to retire early due to prob- lems with alcohol, lies to him regarding the whereabouts of his absent elder brother, apparently a busy businessman who in reality—as Manu later dis- covers—is a heroin addict who lives under a bridge and relies on their father to bring food for him on a daily basis. The presence of the family is even more crucial in El Bola. By all accounts both parents treat Alfredo as an equal, including him in various outdoor activities with their friends and generally allowing him a healthy level of freedom.
From the beginning, Pablo observes Alfredo and his family with exotic fascina- tion. The anniversary of his death is marked by a solemn and sombre ceremony at the cemetery. It appears that death is a taboo in his family and the father uses his dead son as a way to exert more psychological pressure on Pablo, who is constantly and negatively compared to him.
In non-Western societies, tribal rituals to mark same- sex friendships have been and still are common, and friendships between men are highly valued see Sherrod, and Drury Sherrod has argued that postindustrial Western societies have transformed the logistics of this type of male friendship, now damaged by the competitive nature of the job market Their daring game is based on competitiveness, confrontation, and risk all traditional male traits.
Their friendship goes from strength to strength, provoking the jealousy of the other kids. They also question his masculinity, challenging him to a game and provoking him by saying that he has no balls. Eventu- ally, the boys come to realize that sex and friendship are best kept separate and, as the story of the English teacher suggests, their friendship will prob- ably survive the transition into adulthood, but the physical element is likely to disappear.
In El Bola, Pablo helps his mother wash his grandmother but looks away while he holds her in the shower. Drowning becomes a metaphor for his inability to escape the claustrophobic barrio and, ironically, the interior city of Madrid, but also for his powerless- ness and eventual death. When Pablo has to miss school due to a particularly bad battering, his father tells his teachers he has tonsillitis, unknowingly reveal- ing the very sick nature of his action and its physical consequences.
Ironi- cally, when Pablo arrives back at school, the teacher is giving a lesson on bodily functions such as circulation and excretion. He is a master of performing masculinity: when meeting the girls for a party he stresses the fact that he has just shaved and wears a formal suit. Nico breaks the palpable homoerotic tension by saying that he was think- ing it was the hand of a famous female newscaster.
What for Nico is a mechanical act of pleasure is for Dani an intimate act of love. The camera shows him from behind, with soft lighting drawing attention to his backside, and then he per- forms fellatio on his friend. While the bodies of the two boys are equally exposed and presented as attractive, Nico, the heterosexual, is seen as the one in phallic, penetrative control and Dani, like Rai in Barrio or Pablo in El Bola, as the vulnerable passive other.
For both Dani and Nico, the station is the borderline between the reality of their everyday, separate lives and their idyllic time on holiday together. It is also at the station where they playfully wrestle and embrace, conciliating a mod- ern style of masculine friendship with no hang-ups about sexual orientation.
Baca Lagos points out that while youth represented only The emphasis of the Revista is largely sociological, although a recent issue 64 was devoted to Spanish youth cultures March Authors such as Gil Calvo and Baca Lagos have also addressed issues of youth culture and its representa- tion in the Spanish mass media.
This is a characteristic element of the contemporary cultural representation of the Spanish family and serves both as a critique of this un- sociable custom and as a convenient reminder of the social context, often related to underlying issues of the narrative. Recent studies show that the tradition of extended families and duration of co- habitation with grandparents has decreased considerably in the last few years in Spain Requena, 4—5.
On this behavior in schoolchildren see Skelton, 96— Unaccomplished pleasure is a running theme in Barrio, symbolized by the card- board mulatto girl—a substitute for the unreachable mulatto babysitter, the phone sex, the jet ski, and the constant contrast that is established between fantasy and reality.
The emergence of queer girl characters driving romantic nar- ratives challenges normative ideals of heterosexual adolescent femininity while also opening up new ways of perceiving a desiring girl self-active within an intelligent process of becoming sexual. The emergence of diverse forms of visual storytelling that center on girls fantasizing about and pur- suing other girls compels new interpretative practices.
No single story line or visual rep- resentation structures the experiences of queer girls on the screen. At the level of textual framing, categorization, and in- terpretation, queer girls mark a crisis in representation. Yet this crisis does not result in an absence of meaning but rather in a rewriting of the scripts of young love to include intelligent, sexually passionate girls. With Heavenly Crea- tures , The Incredibly True Adventure of Two Girls in Love , All Over Me , Show Me Love , and Lost and Delirious , ado- lescent girls are portrayed as strong central protagonists struggling to deal with social isolation, friendship crushes, coming out, suicide, and homopho- bia.
At the same time, it is important not to skim over the unique status of queer youth within visual media, the uniquely situated signs and shifts in percep- tion through which youth communicate same-sex desires.
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