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It emerged that Edmonds had been secretly filming Evans for months as one of his spoofs. A BBC spokeswoman de- nied yesterday that the deci- sion was based on poor audi- ences. He feels a bit mellower about the music scene these days. A year ago he was working for a laundry in Acton when he learnt that Madonna was recording a version of his Ray of Light His income from the recording enabled him to give up the laundry job. Now the song has won a coveted Gram- my as Best Dance Recording, and he is writing again.

Td forgotten that the Grammys were even happen- ing until I got a phone call this morning. Maldoon niece Chris- tine Leach, a member of the band Baby Fox. She loved h and the song, now Roy Of Light became the title track and has sold about 10 million. Bite the big stuff comes through next month. Our dd album should come out again any day now and ive got a single that people are interested in.

She opened the show in a kimono, then stripped to a vest-top to reveal muscles from a strict gym re- gime as she prepares for a world tour. Lauryn Hill set a record for a female by winning five awards, beating the total ser by Carole King 28 years ago. Ms Hill 23, a soul singer and rapper who is also a member of the Fugees. Macro Wemgartea. Local people were suspi- cious when they saw him driv- ing around, last February.

Mr MacTaggart said. Dixon did no better. He started the blaze under a sprinr- kler system. They braid banging and crashing inside the rectory. This turned out to be damage being done by a fork-lift truck. Yester- day, both men aHmiq wi fire- raising and causing criminal damage. They were freed on bail pending sentencing. The child was working from his own bedroom, using equipment bought by his wealthy parents to help him get to grips with the new world of information technol- ogy.

Using state-of-the- art computer hardware, he was malting counterfeit copies of popular video games and selling diem to friends at the private boarding school where he is a day-boy at up to a fifth of the shop price. The inspectors were unable to say how many fake discs he had created, but they know he had been operating for more than two months. His unsuspecting par- ents were horrified to discover what then- son had been up to at their home in Sun- derland, Tyne and Wear, and gave their assurance that it would not happen again.

After an investigation by officials from the European Leisure Software Publish- ers Association, the boys equipment, worth several thousand pounds, was for- feited to the authorities. Because of his age, the association decided against a prosecution and declined to identify him. However, yesterday it issued a stem warning to others about the seriousness of such offences.

Piracy is a direct threat to the jobs and fivefihoods of those involved in a legit- imate business. Lotus SmartSuite Millennium and more. Only a handful of adult holidaymak- ers remained, awaiting evacua- tion, along with hardy locals reluctant to leave their bruised homes.

Orange-suited rescue workers, staggering with fatigue, pushed long poles deep into the snow, probing for human contact Barely a few weeks ago — half-term for English and Ger- man schoolchildren — the side streets were littered with play- igloos. Now Galtur resembles Hamelin after the Pied Piper, cheated of his rat-killing com- mission.

It was an avalanche racing down an angry mountain' that swallowed GaltuTs children and those of its guests. The figures released by die rescue team are fuzzy: 31 bodies have been found, 27 in Galtur. Per- haps a dozen were children. At least four child deaths have been confirmed and children are among the seven people still reported missing. Alexandra Frick and her boyfriend looked dazed as they stepped out of an army helicop- ter yesterday: they had started a ski holiday and ended up by digging out a child from under a concrete stairwell.

The stairs saved the child, protecting it from the torrent of snow. Mast of the surviving but in- jured 'children were hit by fly- ing tiles and masonry and have suffered broken banes. Those buried underneath the snow for a long period stood 2 little chance. Galtur, most people seem to 1 agree, is finished as a tourist lo- cation, Albert Einstein holi- dayed there and Ernest Hem- ; ingway was so charmed by the little town that in he wrote a story called The Mom- ; tain Idyll.

Now Galtur has lost its children and its future. The forecast is that the weather could dose in again and so there was a scramble to complete the evac- uation of Galtur and move to neighbouring IschgJ. Throughout the Alps — but particularly in Switzer- land.

Germany and Austria — He probably lived because of bi s age. According to reports from Austria, the boy was clinically dead when he was discovered by a sniffer dog late on Wednesday. Even so this is utterly remark- able. The heart will d- ther beat extremely slowly — perhaps three times a minute.

Their fate has gripped the country since the weekend — fears for their survival grow- ing as successive rescue at- tempts were abandoned be- cause of bad weather. The three huddled together in a makeshift igloo they built after becoming lost in a bliz- zard.

Rescuers who plucked Christophe Palichleb and brothers Olivier and Philippe Bourgues to safety in a helicop- tetoaid the three were in good condition after their ordeal in which they had endured arctic conditions at Emergency services found the hikers after they used a mo- bile phone to call local gen- darmes yesterday. The hikers, who ran out of food five days before their res- cue. They are being treated for hypothermia and dehydration.

Fear of running down the battery in their phone prevent- ed the hikers from calling more than four times, they Helicopter finds stranded hikers after final call for help, writes Susan Bell first contacted rescue services on Saturday, made two fur- ther calls on Sunday and wait- ed until Tuesday before mak- ing their final plea for help. Temperatures inside the shel- ter would have been between zero and two degrees, com- pared with -ISC to C out- side.

A helicopter equipped with a heat-seeking device spotted the hikers early yesterday morning. Dogs trained to detect human scent are responsible for hun- dreds of rescues each year Christine Middap writes. The dogs are attached to po- lice forces, search and rescue organisations and defence forces worldwide and are called out in most big search- es for humans. Dogs have about mOlkm scent recep- tors in their noses, compared with about five million in hu- mans.

Given the right circumstance, a track can be followed up to 24 hours after if was laid by a human. See the difference.. Just dial -a code number seen f. The rescue was welcomed with immense relief by foe emergency services. Thousands of holidaymak- ers were stranded in snow- bound Alpine resorts yester- day as avalanches continued to take their toll.

In France a hiker was killed by a wall of snow near Saint-Veran and an- other injured. In Switzerland, an ava- lanche which may have been caused intentionally destroyed several houses and forced the evacuation of about 30 people in the village of Leukerbad. There were no initial reports of casualties. Police launched an inquiry into its cause. One of the three hikers is helped to his feet by rescuers after surviving for ten days in sub-zero temperatures Britons count the cost of disaster By Adrian Lee and Claudia Joseph HUNDREDS of Britons who have spent up to six days stranded by avalanches and heavy snowfalls were yester- day joining the exodus from Tyrolean ski resorts.

Carol Evelegh. They were forced to leave their luggage behind. The Association of British In- surers said that most holiday policies would not cover extra time spent in resorts because of poor weather or avalanches. You also have the choice of either two years free insurance. ABS, drivers airbag, engine immobiliser, power steering, colour co-ordinated bumpers and fingertip stereo control are standard.

Whichever Megane you choose, you'll be driving the safest car in its class, according to the latest European NCAP safety tests. So if- you want to get in great shape, and stay that way , take a test drive at your nearest Renault dealer. Or ring for more information. The group has approached four of the big City law firms, including Clifford Chance, to see if any of them would cake the case without charge as part their pro bona work. The newspaper published photographs of the five youths in May under the head- line "Murderers".

It declared: 'The Mail accuses these men of killing. If we are wrong, let them sue us. However, a partner with Clifford Chance made informal inquiries around the Temple to see if any barrister would be willing to lake on the brief. Liberty took up the case after hearing the mothers of the suspects say that their sons were innocent but could not clear their names because they could not afford to litigate. John Wad ham, the director of Liberty, said: "We wanted to find a lawyer to act so that there was no impediment to the truth being aired in court.

Legal aid was not avail- able for defamation actions so the only way the youths and their families cc Jd seek to dear their names was if law- yers did the work free. Mr Wadham said. John Pons, a partner with Clifford Chance, said he had been approached by Liberty and he had raised the ethical issues of the case with barris- ters.

But his firm had built up its pro bono practice by doing work for defendants rather than tak- ing actions for plaintiffs. Apart from anything else. I wouldn't want a brick through my window " Even if a law firm and bar- rister were found, there is the question of whether the youths would be ready to face tough questioning as witnesses. But the burden of proof would be on the Mail to justify that what it said was true.

VAT F'i-'-. Full installation service available. The community officer said the Mens rank and file were wor- ried about the impact of the Lawrence case On their work. As he walked the streets of East London yesterday. Ser- geant Clark. They may think it is not worth the aggra- vation that comes with a com- plaint.

There are occasions when we get to an incident, are not sure what has happened and everyone is a potential suspect. If you are too careful you may end up not doing something we would oth- erwise have done. He said that offic- ers accepted that changes had to be made to make things bet- ter. The good ones are worried they will make an honest mistake and be made a scapegoat. The Commissioner needs to have something in place to deal with the bad apples but that does not alienate the good ones.

Most officers arc not hap- py with the report. The feeling is that the outcome was derid- ed before it was finished. From what I have read and heard, the police were not able to give a full account of themselves. But so does the criminal jus- tice system. Even if officers had done everything properly, they are still working with one hand tied behind their bade.

It is happening a lot less. As we deal with people as partners in the community rather than suspects or victims, when peo- ple are often at their worst, things will get even better. General- ly. T hope they wont follow in thosQ footsteps. I hope it will be an easy process. It is ings. The decision came alter : less. This is an option- ing. General- that they put on hold for thd join up to do duration of the Macpherson still the case.

Vietnam cycle challenge Vietnam, an exciting country of contrasts. Raise vital funds to help prevent drug and alcohol misuse. See the country the way most Vretnamese do Are you geared up for the challenge? David Faber, a Conserva- tive member of the select com- mittee. The Archbishop of Canter- bury, Dr George Carey, who has said he may boycott the Dome if there is no Christian prayer, said after yesterday's evidence that his threat still stood.

We will see where we are when they have made up their minds on what they are going to do. Cardinal Basil Hume said yesterday that he would cele- brate new year in Westminster Cathedral if religion were side- lined in the Dome. Dr Carey should read a short prayer in the five minutes before midnight. Midnight is a very significant time and I think minds and hearts should be raised into the pres- ence of God. Aelfric, Archbishop of Can- terbury. Aelfric ddested the forces of secularism in the Church and expelled the secular clergy from his cathedral, install- ing monks instead.

The country was beset by Viking invasions, which were seen as a portent of apocalypse. The raids were also considered divine punishment for Aethebed having as- sumed the throne when his half-brother was murdered. On the other hand, there was no Millennium Dome to worry about from his predecessor's hands- on style. If there is something seriously wrong 1 would say so but I don't thmk it is appropriate for me to start fiddling about with every- thing. Jennie Page, chief executive of NMEC, indicated yesterday that the Dome may remain open into if there was suf- ficient demand.

Jodie and Jayne Scrivens, He lokf them to be back by 8pm and not to visit a friend at a caravan site because it was get- ting dark. In a statement read to the inquest, he said he be- came worried when they had not returned by pm and went out to look for them.

Mr Scrivens returned to the scene of the accident. I could not stop shaking. A police officer said two gins on pedal cycles were involved. The officer then took me up to the scene of the accident. When I got there, I knew im- mediately it was the girls. Her sister died in hospi- Raymond Scrivens: search for daughters tal from head and chest inju- ries.

Miss Brown wept as she told how she had lied to pro- tect the giris. She had said she had not seen them since 6pm because she did not want to get them into trouble. He gave chase but lost foe car on a housing estate, the in- quest heard. The driver of the Passat An- thony Barrs, a car salesroom manager from Bushbury.

Wolverhampton, later re- turned to the scene. I told her 1 had hit something and that; I was going hack to the scerijT Mr Barrs said he had sni- ped at a pub on his way home from work and had drunk Ih to IK pints of lager. A breath to IK pints of lager. A breath test at the roadside proved negative. He said be bad a mo- bile phone with him but haid not used it because be dkkft know where it was In the car.

H you find you can, we guarantee to refund the difference. Cals rwy Bo siibjew to a surcharge. Those earning less will be asked which of several income brackets they fall into. This is not about finding out where the fat cats are. Wales and Scotland. If the trials are successful, it will be included in the new national form to be issued in Other new questions in- clude asking people their reli- gion for the first time since 18S1, asking if they care for a sick or dependent family mem- ber or friend, and requesting details about their state of health.

In another break with tradi- tion. Art Johnson of Lockhead Martin, which is also contract- ed to run the American census in Previously, each form had to be individually read and the information en- tered onto computer by hand Forms will be available in English and Welsh and trans- lations of the questions will be available on separate sheets in 20 languages.

The information will be stored on digital tape and the forms destroyed after they have been processed — anoth- erfirsL This is largely an econ- omy measure; the paper- work occupies 19 miles of 12ft high shelf space. Paws for thought two of the bull terriers take a break from their exertions, while Strapper the Jack Russell prepares to show what he can do Dogs take the lead in park performance WeOard from EastEnders makes a play for GiD Rad dings A SELECTION of likely look- ing Crufts contenders went on parade in London yesterday to demonstrate that the annu- al dog show is about more than aristocratic pedigree, ft also emphasises training and good behaviour.

Unfortunately, the latter seemed to be in short supply. A quartet of bull terriers — Al- ice. However GiD Raddings and Julie Tottman of the Stunt Dogs Agency were on hand to prove that some dogs can be taught to act well enough to earn their owners a reasonable living. They had taken along Wellard, currently starring in EastEnders; Saracen, a long- haired German shepherd that is now Nick Berry's dog in Harbour Lights, having been thrown out as an eight-month- old by a family who found it impossible to cope with; and Strapper, a versatile little terri- er with a string of screen cred- its as long as a borzoi's nose.

They can do a lot of useful tricks. After that, the dogs made a collec- tive derision that it was time for walldes. Many owners required to hand over weapons because of the ban imposed after the Dun- blane massacre are still await- ing compensation, according to a report published by the National Audit Office today.

The government spending watchdog found that there were weaknesses in the comp- ensation system that made checking difficult. Its report says that technical experts should have been consulted be- fore the development of a com- puter system to deal with claims. The Home Office system had been brought into oper- ation while faults were still oc- curring.

Handgun ownership was banned in Large-calibre weap- ons had to be handed in by the end of September The report noted that on the limited information available, it now appeared thaT many of the illegal weapons had been replaced by other types of le- gal weapons, such as muzzle- loading pistols, rifles or shot- guns. The report says that more than , hanguns have been handed in, 25, fewer than the original estimated by Home Office officials.

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I've put on two store since 1 came in. Fresh pro- duce is guaranteed by theprfc- on farm; buying is confined to what is cheap in the that day. But after only 18 months in foe small tranquil townof Du- noon, on the Clyde, Iain Camp- bell has decided that he pre- fers the busy streets of the South London borough of Lewisham. Mr Campbell, 58, who left his home town of Glasgow in foe Sixties, said yesterday: T have had several calls already.

But 1 miss foe buzz of the dty. It may be the gem of Scotland but it's not for me. Lewisham's a terrific place. There are only 91, resi- dents. The 35 square kilometres of Lewisham is home to The crime rate; too, differs. Du- noon. Tony Ravenscroft of Aoom. Lewi- sham has become a popular and trendy area over foe past 18 months.

The country- side is beautiful round here. Lodi Lomond is only a half- hour drive away. There are also the golf courses, which are superb. All my mates are in London and I want to go back. T know that I but I have become a Londoner of the southeastern variety. The other rettflertprioantusi be tor a new product ImmadialBly Sweat fun price at On store ThaBT shop refund policy 'applies to aB products except telephone Finos and associated sendees. All Trademarks recoflnteed.

Ask irMtora lor details. Airport taxes are not Indiided. Hi, g V. The off-schedule schedule grew by the hour. The flat in question was in deepest Camden and be- longed to Steve Mackey, of die pop band Pulp. He had lent h to his friend LueUa Bar- tley far her to present her col- lection of tongue-in-cheek town and country clothes.

Even finding details about the shows was a challenge. Chinese whispers rustled through the front row of the first show each morning. By day three, if someone had started a rumour that the Prince of Wales had designed a neo-punk range, there would have been a flurry of cashmere outside Bucking- ham Palace. Money is the heart of the problem. Some designers have been kideed off die offi- cial schedule for not paying their biDsJ And with 50 shows squashed into four days, there is not room For everyone who would like to be there.

Dai Rees, whose delicate millinery was previously some- thing of an inside secret. His elegant collection fea- tured drapes and the tweed mid tartan mohair that have been a recurrent theme this week. He would have liked to be on-schedule but was rejected on the grounds of space. Oth- er designers prefer to be off- schedule: it adds a touch of edgy credibility, rather like playing off Broadway.

Bella Freud, who has long been part of die official set-up, struck out on her own tills time with a chic collaboration with die actor John Malkovich. He directed a six-minute film in which the London Under- ground got a starring role and flashes of Freud's dothing were glimpsed. Teresa Bracfa. Are the ofFschedule design- ers any good? Yes and, in some cases, perhaps. Will they sell? Emphatically yes. Bartley has been approached by Saks Fifth Avenue: Fox al- ready sells in liberty: Brach has had appointments with Japanese buyers all week.

The researeb- j ere do not believe that one con- idition leads to the other but they think that they are ca u se d by the same unknown, factors. Ouch-free i lasters! T sometimes think that is why so many young people to- day end up on fee streets. I was bloody lucky and I think feat is what has drawn me to work wife homeless people. Ms Casey, T want to prevent them ending up as rough sleepers. BOX The poll, undertaken last weekend, shows that support for the Tories has jumped from 24 to 30 per cent since late January, while Labour has slipped five points to 51 per cent The liberal Democrats are unchanged on 14 per cent But Labour is still higher, and the Tories lower, than their elec- tion voting shares.

Wiliam Hague's approval rating has dropped, especially among Tory sup- porters. It is too early to say whether Tory fortunes are at last recovering on a sustained basis, or whether it is just a one-month blip. Apart from the shift in vot- ing intentions, the negative points for Labour are an in- crease in dissatisfaction with the Government's perform- ance. The balance of those satis- fied less dissatisfied is now even at 45 per cent on each side, for the first rime since the general election.

Similarly, Mr Blair's rating has contin- ued to slip to its lowest level since the election. However, nearly three fifths of the public 58 per cent is sat- isfied with the way he is doing his job as Prime Minister, with a third 34 percent dissat- isfied.

The net balance of plus 24 points is down from plus 30 points or more for most of last year. However, the ratings of Mr Blair, the Government and Labour are still much higher than for parties in of- fice at the similar stages of pre- vious Parliaments. The Tories may be solidify- ing their core support and have picked up among those aged over Mr Hague still faces a serious im- age problem despite the public- ity he received from his recent trip to the USA.

Less than a quarter of die public 23 per cent is satisfied with his performance with more than a half 53 per cent dissatisfied. This net balance of minus 30 points is the lowest since last September. Mr Hague's rat- ing among Tory supporters has deteriorated dramatically over the past month with 55 per cent dissatisfied and just 28 per cent satisfied.

This net balance of minus 27 points compares with minus 4 points a month ago and is his worst ever figure. That underlines the importance for Mr Hague of the Tories doing well in the forthcoming Scottish. Welsh, local government and Europe- an elections. Moreover, the public is be- coming less worried about the economic outlook and die threat of recession after the se- ries of cuts in interest rates.

The MORI economic opti- mism index, measuring the balance of those dunking that the general economic condi- tion of the country will im- prove rather than get worse over the next 12 months, now stands at minus 15 points, com- pared with minus 23 points in late January, and is the best figure since last May. Women are much more pessimistic than men. The public also remains con- fident about the Government's economic policies with nearly a half 49 per cent agreeing that, in the long term, they will improve the state of Britain's economy with less than a third 31 per cent disagreeing.

This balance is only slightly down on a year ago before the last Budget, despite the evi- dence of slowdown. The scheme is aimed at the sea- side towns where drug ad- dicts. Chris Smith, the Culture Sec- retary. The revamp of the resorts is pan of a point strategy to be unveiled today to make Brit- ain a major tourism centre in Europe for the Millennium.

Mr Smith believes the publici- ty surrounding the Millenni- um Dome at Greenwich will attract another two million people to Britain next year. Tomorrow's Tourism, to be launched in the dome today, will stress the need for greater quality, higher standards and more helpful service at hotels and tourist attractions. The party is now consider- ing giving Scotland's 32 coun- cils money to distribute as bur- saries only to those living with- in their boundaries.

The proposal was immedi- ately criticised by politicians and student leaders because only students resident in Scot- land would qualify for assist- ance. It means that about Under the SNP, students would have to pass two exams: a reasona- ble academic one and a thor- oughly disreputable one on cit- izenship.

Party strategists are now examining whether students from Eng- land should be classed as resi- dent in Scotland once they have been accepted for a uni- versity place — although this would not get around the problem of Scottish universi- ties being Hooded with appli- cations from all over the UK. It is, however, higher than achieved by any of the Con- servative Chancellors between and Data were weighted to match the profile of the population and voting intention figures ex- clude those who say they would not vote 10 per cent , are undecided 6 per cent or who refuse to name a party 1 per cent.

They should not be so sure. The lat- est MORI poll suggests that the public is evenly divided and that there is everything to play for in what will proba- bly be a three-year referen- dum campaign. The poll was taken before Tony Blair's statement on Tuesday so the figures might show greater support for entry now. The key point is that the poll does not assume that opinion is static and firm, but differentiates between strong and conditional sup- port and opposition.

Of course, the exact balance wOl vary depending on the exact question asked. But the balanoe of opinion against entry has narrowed since the election. The latest poQ confirms the instinctive view that there is a hard core which strongly opposes British participation in the euro. These firm , oppo- nents outnumber strong sup- ported. In the middle are the waverers.

This total has r emained roughly constant at about half the public, slightly more in the pro than the anti camp. This indudes S3 per cent of La- bour s upp o rt ers and 45 per cent of Tories. This is consist- ent with regular polls that MORI Financial Services does for Salomon Smith Bar- ney which shows that the gapbetweenpros and cons is roughly ten pewits smaller if : people are asked about their attitudes if the Government strongly urged that Britain should be part of a single cur- rency, as would happen in a referendum.

The Blair Government is not therefore facing a majori- ty of sceptics, but rather, a mi- nority of diehard opponents, and half the public which says it is persuadable either way. The sceptics are tom. This is not in any way a representative poll but rath- er a demonstration that some readers feel strongly enough to pick up a telephone: Igjji no guide to the balanced opinion.

The MORI poll shows that 37 per cent of Sun readers are strongly opposed and 28 per cent are generally opposed but persuadable, while 13 per- cent strongty support entry and 17 per cent generally sup- port but are persuadable. This suggests there are 45 per cent of waverers. The poll show that two-thirds of the public think it is likely that they and their children wOl regularly use a single Euro- pean currency and coinage.

That is not the sd0t as British entry, but such ex- pectations can affect atti- tudes. So don't assume opinion is fixed. It all depends which side is seen as more credible and persuasive. No wonder Mr Blair was smiling on Tuesday at the Tory divi- sions. AaNne too. MMi v. I Not only are the existing en- [ tries more detailed, but more j M Ps have declared something , for the first time. In the language of the Reg- ister. For sane MPs, the pay- ments amount to nothing more than a few hundred pounds in recompense for the occasional television inter- view.

Sane MPs say the mon- ey goes to a favourite charity or their constituency funds. But for others it is a major source of income. The highest earner is George Galloway Lab. Neither come close to the previous record held by. Ro- seanna Cunningham SNP. Penh earns the same amount for a weekly column in the Scottish Mirror. David Curcy. Accountancy Age. Jim Cousins Lab. Sir Patrick. His assistant editors. Charles Kennedy, a potential replacement for Paddy Ash- down.

Sir Norman Fowler, the Shadow Home Secretary, is non-executive chairman of the media group which publishes several major regional news- papers. The latter was received -by the. Nearly Although rugby internation- als. The company also arranged for David Marshall. Labour Member for Glasgow Shettle- stone. But they were not alone. Tom Pen dry. Not only international games attract MPs.

Judith Church. Labour MP for Da- genham. On both ocassions she was the guest of Hillside Man- agement Group. One of than. Jifll and. Howev- ' er, the spoon was presorted to Ms Wid- decombe! On the whole; Labour MPs do not seem to attract such high quality presents as their Tory counterparts.

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Owning a Dell Dimension is now as hassle-free as buying one. Full service offering details available on request! Nearly a decade after the Gov- ernment withdrew support for wave schemes, the technology is to be given renewed backing after studies showing that costs have more than halved. Lord McDonald, the Scot- tish Business and Industry Minister, said yesterday that wave-power projects at Islay had support under a spedaJ levy on electricity bills to en- courage green schemes.

The ap- proval guarantees a market and premium price for genera- tors of green power plants dur- ing the costly start-up phase. The cost of electricity gener- ated from wave power is down to about 7p a unit From wind, it is now down to about 2p in sane cases, making it as com- petitive as gas. Whiplash is the brainchild of Richard Yemm. It is a tube of steel me- tres long and 3. It is moored into the waves and snakes from side to side and up and down. Pumps inside each segment force oil down a Nick Nuttall reports on new plans to get electricity from the sea as costs fall pipe to a hydraulic motor.

This in turn drives a generator with the electricity fed via an undersea cable to shore. Two Whiplash machines, able to generate kilowatts, are to be installed about a mile offshore at Machir Bay. Dr Yemm, This is a very impor- tant start for wave power.

We are now starting to get the same support as wind power. Studies by the European Com- mission indicated that Britain could generate all its electricity from die waves if 0. The Limpet wave-power ma- chine is the work of Wavegen. For the company. Allan Thompson said that its ma- chine would also be off Islay.

Waves smashing into a gulley on the island push air to spin a turbine. The turbine spins the opposite way as the waves sub- side and air is sucked bade down. The machine is an im- proved version of an experi- mental station built by Queen's University.

Belfast Mr Thomson urged the Gov- ernment to back wave power south of the border as well. The new contracts were awarded under the Scottish Re- newables Obligation, which means that households pay a subsidy towards higher costs of green power to safeguard the environment ty reducing greenhouse gases.

The next round of this will promote the country's Erst offshore wind schemes. The It is about two megawatts tagger than one undergoing construc- tion in Yorkshire. The awards, solid gold statuettes, are sponsored by the Ital- ian Prime Minister and the Motion Picture Association of Italy and given each year to an actor, an actress and a director. This year's two other winners were the actor Jeremy Irons and the director Bernardo Berto- lucci. Cardinale faced competition from Julie Christie. They fear that an alFweafeer sports pitch, a playground, a community cen- tre and a street market will also have to make way for a massively expanded theatre with little relevance for most of fee community.

The theatre's claim that 60 per cent. John Bredcoa manag- ing director of a City confer- ence business! Terry fisher was allegedly involved in a scuffle on Tuesday night at the Queensland Irish Associ- ation in Brisbane, where Mr Adams bad been speaking.

Mr Fishers lawyer. Mr Adams is visiting Mel- bourne. Time to decide The High Court has reserved judgment on a claim by mem- bers of fee pit deputies union Nacods that RJB Mining is un- lawfully requiring them to work more than the 48 hours a week laid down by the new Working Hme Regulations.

The section be- tween junctions 24 and 25 will be dosed to enable the con- struction of a roadbridge. More Madness Hie s pop band Madness have reformed their original seven-strong line-up to record die first new songs for 15 years. Many of these fine items are one only showroom models, which should be viewed this weekend and are available at great sale prices for immmediate delivery.

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NT, have made it one of the most popular mid-range servers. On the Web, s ikys ii:st ten's i nfidenee oroblem. Secunty is ir c fot ihcugr-: vT-an constructing an IBM sewer and is r. Altrasttos finascing is available ter zli models. Protecting this data is your mission in life if you manage an e-business.

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And IBM Global Financing can help you choose the most effective way to finance your ebusiness solution, with a payment plan customised to meet your needs. IBM has helped companies of every size become e-businesses faster than these organisations ever thought was possible. IBM - has helped small to medium-size businesses become e-businesses in a few weeks.

WeVe helped huge companies become fully-fledged e-businesses in a matter of a few short months. To find out how our engines of e-business can improve your organisation visit www. Albright, Secretary of State, would be returning to the peace talks when they resume in three weeks. At the White House, officials said her schedule was not available. Ms Albrighrs formerly bright star has been considera- bly dimmed by the broken promises of Rarnbouillet She was photographed coming and going from the talks wear- ing an outsize trilby that came low over her eyes.

She was un- able to pull rabbits out of it. She told the Senate Foreign Rela- tions Committee that the Serbs appeared to be using the pause in the talks to mass troops and armour for a spring offensive against the ethnic Albanians in Kosovo.

She issued a warning that Nato forces could intervene to block such a move. This was just the latest of Ms Albright's hawkish warn- ings and they are beginning to have a hollow ring. Giving warnings is a sad substitute for policy, said The Washing- ton Post. Ever since the no- nonsense American diplomat, Richard Holbrooke, knocked heads together at the Bosnian peace talks in Dayton, Ohio,, the Clinton Administration has been dazzled by the pros- pects of a repeat performance.

Rarnbouillet was not Day- ton. At the Kosovo talks, the French Government was in of the agenda and nego- tiations were shared among a diffuse group. Also, Ms Albrighr is no Hol- brooke. She is acutely aware that he will- be remembered for ending the war. Mr Holbrooke, however, is re- nowned for preparing himself for all options along with his bullying. With the population 90 per cent ethnic Albanian the poll would be bound to succeed.

Having put the prestige of her office bn the line. Ms Albright was reduced to pleading. The failure of the RambouiF let talks was further evidence that Ms Albright, and by exten- sion the Clinton Administra- tion. The latest outbreak of riot- ing started after at leak two houses owned by Christians were set on fire, apparently by petrol bombs thrown by Muslims, resi- dents said.

At least people have been- killed in sectarian violence since mid-January in Ambon and on several neighbouring islands. Of- ficials fear that many of the youngsters have been abducted by the rebels when the latter were chased out by the West African in- tervention force, Ecomog, and then taken into the bush. Many of the children have already been traumatised by rebel atrocities, in- cluding gang rape, the officials said. The men — 20 Albanians and a Pole — were being held in a moderates ecurity prison pending trial for various offences.

They allegedly jumped over a 16ft fence not under camera surveil- lance in a predawn escape. Prison authorities raised the alarm when the men failed to appear for morning roll call. They came bad; with their re- sistance to a deal stiffened. One accomplishment, they said, had been simply getting the Albanians to sit down in the same room with the Serbs. Fighting erupted yesterday between Yugoslav forces and Kosovo rebels in Bukos.

Explo- sions were heard in the out- skirts of the dty. A French soldier making an electron- ic record of an armoured personnel carrier m the Greek port of Salonika yesterday. More than 2. The Nato exerdse underlines the increasing commit- ment of the alliance to reinforce polit- ical stability in the key Vardar valley that dominates transport routes in the southern Balkans— the road and rail links between Yugoslavia, Mace- donia and Greece.

The railway north from Salonika is being increasingly dominated by military transport. Greeks are bemused, and not a little disturbed, by this dramatic reminder of their proximity to the Balkan crisis. Salonika is as much a Balkan as a European city these days, in the wake of the huge influx of Serbs. Russians and Albanians over the past five years. Net pa. Nn pa. AER Gran pa. AER Grass pa. AER Gross pa Napa. Scpttanter nd Uaanha. It pays to decide.. Ins pup hr pad m da fftm am. Ian qunad mn wiilte.

Up lif-iuf J j! Chevron, should be investigated over allegations that it helped the Nigerian security forces to massacre civilians. Dermis Kucmich, a con- gressman. The focus of attention on Nigeria, which is in transition from military rule to democra- cy and is scheduled to swear in a civilian President in May.

Human rights groups, intel- ligence sources and diplomats said that the role of French oil companies in the civil war still raging in Congo-Brazzaville was under covert investiga- tion. They said that Denis Sas- sou-Nguesso. According to a French mer- cenary who flew for Mr Ngues- so, the backing was with the knowledge and approval of the French authorities and Par- is's overseas spy agency.

Chevron had won oil conces- sions from Mr Lissouba, who was deposed after bloody fight- ing in the former French colo- ny which has access to some of the largest untapped off-shore oil reserves in the world.

Hu- man Rights Watch said in its report on Nigeria that the oil companies were uncoopera- tive in answering the advocacy group's questions. But as democracy looms in Nigeria, where campaigning for the presidential election dosed last night, they are un- likely to continue to maintain this position: Nigeria's unpub- lished Constitution for its Fourth Republic is likely to in- dude dauses which protect the rights of communities who have suffered worst from oil operations in their homelands.

Olusegun Obasanjo. Chevron has denied any comptidty in the deaths of pro- testers, who have kidnapped several oil workers and taken over offshore oil rigs in protest at the destruction of their envi- ronment and fisheries. Scores of ljaws, and people from other communities, have been killed in dashes with the security police which Human Rights Watch said were often ferried to the conflict areas on oil company helicopters and speedboats. But die company did admit to Human Rights Watch that two unarmed protesters were killed by Nigerian security per- sonnel flown on to Chevron's Parabe Platform to remove people who had dosed down production last May.

One of those who were killed was a negotiator. Censorship, page 48 Ultra-Orthodox Jews in Jeru- alem linked by handcuffs yes- terday in a demonstration in support of three Jews arrest- ed on snspidon of arson and attacking Christian mission- aries. A court yesterday sen- tenced one of die three to Jews angered by arrests eight months in prison for his role in setting fire to an apartment in habited by two Swiss women missionaries in the ultra-Orthodox quar- ter of Mea Shearim four months ago.

News of the con- viction prompted some pro- testers to burn rubbish bins and block traffic. The two other accused, one a minor, await trial. Ultra-Orthodox Jews have been angered by supreme court rulings chal- lenging their rabbis. Baruch Goldstein, erupted yes- terday, the fifth anniversary of die day he massacred 29 Pales- tinians in the West Bank dty of Hebron,' holy Id Muslims and Jews.

The elaborate grave at the entrance to Kiryat Arba. Id have them removed and prom- ises by the Israeli Army 'that the grotesque shrine at the grave would be dealt with. But we were met by a large police force, some of whom pushed and shoved us. But fear of a vio- lent backlash by ultra-nation- alist Jews has prevented the army from taking action. In an attempt to discourage extremists making pilgrim- Christopher Walker reports from Jerusalem on an extremist pilgrimage site ages to the site, the army ordered the two most offend- ing words removed.

But the Supreme Court in Jerusalem issued a temporary injunction in December against the changes after Goldstein's father petitioned the court On Monday, the court asked a retired judge to medi- ate. Moshe Go rat a court spokesman, said such arbitra- tion was not unusual. Ran Cohen, a left-wing lsrae- G politician, then attacked the court tor toiling to rule on the matter. Goldstein was beaten to death by Muslim worshippers who survived his shooting spree in the holy Tomb of the Patriarchs, known to the Islamic world as the Ibrahimi mosque.

His attack took place during dawn prayers on Feb- ruary Three years later Israel handed over 80 per cent of Hebron to Palestinian self- rule. About militant Jew- ish settlers and seminary students have remained in the Israeli-controlled sector where they live surrounded by , hostile Arabs.

Hive Li. Officials said that Karl LaGrand, 36, received a le- thal injection in the early hours at the state prison complex at Florence. Arizo- na, about 60 miles south- east of Phoenix. He was pronounced dead four min- utes later.

The Prime Minister arrived in Germany for a special EU summit that will demand sacri- fices from ail members to bring about a massive shake- op of its expensive agricultural polity and open the way to new entrants from Central and Eastern Europe.

Yesterday senior British offi- cials suggested, that the other 14 heads of government would be wasting their time if they tried to get the rebate reduced or removed. And in a deliber- ate raising of the temperature before today's gathering, they accused others of questioning Prime Minister pressed to make sacrifices, writes Philip Webster in Petersberg the British money-back arran- gement as an excuse to avoid concentrating on the huge re- forms thaiwere needed.

In taking such a hard line in advance. Mr Blair risks em- barrassment if he has to con- cede on the rebate as part of the wider reform that the Ger- man presidency of the EU hopes to achieve by the end of next month in Berlin. But he was dearly trying to counter the impression after his meet- ing in December with Presi- dent Chirac that he would ulti- mately give way to French de- mands that everything should be placed on the table.

At the end of a week in which he has been perceived Old friends fall out over budget reform From Charles Bremner in peters berg EUROPEAN leaders expect to be treated today to die unu- sual sight of a full-blown dis- pute between Germany and France over how to divide the costs of running an expand- ing European Union.

The session at Peters berg, near Bonn, has been called to force the pace before a final bout of negotiations next month for the Agenda package, a big revamp of the way die EU raises and spends its money. Farm spending ac- counts for half the budget and regional aid for about a third. German officials have com- plained that French citizens pay times less per head than Germans to the EU. Mr Blair clearly does not want to be seen as a pushover in Euro- pean negotiations. His official spokesman left little leeway for a dimbdown.

Latweeschu wallodai pahrtulkotas. Tartu: Laakmann. Anderson, B. Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Bachtin, M. Das Wort im Roman. Barons, K. Barons, H. Wissendorff, Latwju Dainas. Jelgava: Drawin-Drawneeks, iii—xxvi. Bendorfs, V.

Brokoff, J. Konzepte von Gegenwart und Gegenwartsliteratur. Chiarini, W. Hinderer, Hrsg. Ein Wegbereiter der Moderne. Wie publizieren? Schmitz-Emans, Hrsg. DFG-Symposium Berlin: de Gruyter, 71— Lyrik kanonisieren. Herders Volksliedersammlung als Versuch einer Gattungskonstitution. Ajouri, U. Kundert, C. Rohde, Hrsg. Berlin: Erich Schmidt, — Eine Kulturpolitik des Affekts? Acker, A. Fleig, M. Dynamiken der deutschsprachigen Gegenwartsliteratur.

Derrida, J. Fehr, J. Saussure: Zwischen Linguistik und Semiologie. Ein einleitender Kommentar. Texte, Briefe und Dokumente. Gaier, U. Geitner, U. Gegenwartsliteratur, Literaturkritik, Literaturwissenschaft — programmatisch. Geyer, J. Lehmann, Hrsg. Jahr- hundert. Hannover: Wehrhahn, 61— Geyer, S.

Hannover: Wehrhahn. Gramling, D. The Invention of Monolingualism. New York u. Herder, J. Holquist, M. What would Bakhtin do? Hamburg: Junius. Leerssen, J. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Luhmann, Gesellschaftsstruktur und Semantik. Studien zur Wissenssoziologie der modernen Gesellschaft.

Luhmann, N. Die Politik der Gesellschaft. Martyn, D. Fohrmann, Hrsg. Figuration und Performanz. Stuttgart: Metzler, — Dembeck, G. Mein, Hrsg. Heidelberg: Winter, 39— Melne, E. Treija, Hrsg. Paul, H. Principien der Sprachgeschichte. Halle: Max Niemeyer. Phaidros III 4. Renner, K. Antikoloniale Perspektiven in Herders Volksliedprojekt.

Mix, Hrsg. Heidelberg: Winter, — Herder und die Philologie. Am Beispiel des Volksliedprojekts. Sakai, N. How Do We Count a Language? Translation and Discontinuity. Linguistik und Semiologie. Stockhammer, R. Wissen und Macht in der Geschichte einer sprachli- chen Institution. Berlin: Suhrkamp. New York: Fordham.

Vom historischen Erbe zur selbstbestimmten Sprach en politik? Literary Multilingualism in Lithuania and Latvia. The first part of this article looks at Soviet language s policy. Two further parts discuss language s policy and literary multilingualism in Lithuania and Latvia. The aim is not to provide a differentiated investigation, but to show similarities and differences as well as tendencies in the language s politics of the two states from the 19 th century to the present in the mirror of literature and to explain them using case studies.

In the fourth, concluding part, literary translation is highlighted as one of the formats for implementing multilingualism outside the text with particular focus on the consultative function of the Russian language. Chalitova der Bolschewiken statt. Um das Ziel, die ideologische Indoktrinierung, zu erreichen, bediente man sich lokaler Sprachen.

Dieser zeichnet sich durch die zunehmende Verbreitung der russischen Sprache in den nationalen Minderheiten der Sowjetunion aus Borisova o. Am Das zentral koordinierte Programm soll die Implementierung des Russischunterrichts in allen Schulen und Bildungseinrichtungen aller Republiken der Sowjetunion steuern. Bereits Anfang kann die faktische Dominanz der russischen Sprache als offizielle Sprache in den meisten Republiken der Sowjetunion konstatiert werden.

Eine Ausnahme stellen die baltischen Staaten dar. Anders als in allen anderen sowjetischen Republiken haben sich die jeweiligen Landessprachen erfolgreich gegen die russische Sprache durchgesetzt. Damit scheint die Sprachsituation in den balti- schen Staaten der Sowjetzeit eine deutlich andere zu sein als in anderen sowje- tischen Republiken. Dies geschah erst ! Rudnev 5. Fast jedes Jahr war unter den Ausgezeichneten auch ein nichtrussischer sowjetischer Autor. Dadurch wollte man der multinationalen und mehrsprachigen Situation in der Sowjetunion gerecht werden.

Gellhaus Wie in den meisten multiethnischen und vielsprachigen Gebieten zu beobachten ist, gab es auch in Litauen eine Hierarchie der Sprachen vgl. Die Sprache der literarischen Texte wurde nicht zuletzt durch die Sprache des Schulunterrichts vorgegeben. Die litauische Literatur des Jahrhunderts liefert hierzu zahlreiche Beispiele. Ende des Auch in der Literatur dominierte Polnisch. Antoni Baranowskis Biographie in polnischer Sprache: www.

Kulbak Dort blieben sie der litauischen Sprache treu. Da sie fast alle Lyrik schrieben, war der Sprachwechsel ja sehr unwahrscheinlich. Sein erstes auf Litauisch verfasstes Gedicht erschien Sein Sprachwechsel war weniger politisch motiviert, er trug vielmehr einen experimentellen Charakter. Anders war es in der litauischen Sprache, die diese Kunstrichtung noch nicht kannte und unverbrauchtes Sprachmaterial bot, das ein Dichter frei von Vorbildern und abseits der Muster gestalten konnte.

Dadurch entstand Freiraum zum Modifizieren, Ausprobieren, eben zum Experimentieren. Gleichzeitig findet Transfer von neuen literarischen Formen, Trends, Kunstrichtungen und Stilen aus einer Literatur in die andere statt. Damit wird deutlich, wie verbreitet textex- terne Mehrsprachigkeit gerade unter den Lyrikern ist. In russischer Sprache wurden Anthologien der Literatur fast aller sowjetischen Republiken herausgegeben.

Gewiss waren diese Ausgaben politisch und ideologisch motiviert. Ideen, sondern blieb Parteimitglied auch nach der Wende. Veser Die Literatur des heutigen Litauens orientiert sich am globalen Buchmarkt, der englischsprachig ist. Die Online-Zeitschrift Vilnius Review bietet eine bee- indruckende Zahl an literarischen Texten der litauischen Gegenwartsliteratur und setzt sich deren Popularisierung zum Ziel. Sie bringt Texte von knapp Autorinnen und Autoren, die seit Jahrhunderten mit Litauen verbunden waren und auf Russisch schrieben.

Allerdings ist bemerkenswert, dass eine solche Sprachzensur wie in Litauen in den anderen postsowje- tischen Staaten nicht praktiziert wird — mit Ausnahme von Russland. Abrufbar unter: www. Jahrhundert, die Besetzung durch das Russische Reich Anfang des Erst im Unter den lettisch-deutschen Schriftstellern ist u. Andrievs Niedra — zu nennen. Seine Novellen und Kurzgeschichten verfas- ste er auf Lettisch. Viele von ihnen, wie z. Unter ihnen war auch das bekannteste literarische Paar Lettlands Aspazija — und Rainis — Ihre ersten Gedichte schrieb Aspazija auf Deutsch, wechselte aber bald zum Lettischen.

Jahrhunderts nicht abgeebbt. Der Geschichte der literarischen Mehrsprachigkeit in Lettland widmet sich Alexander Zapol in der Einleitung zu der von ihm herausgegebenen Anthologie Zapol , die einen langen Abschnitt der lettischen Lyrik von bis anhand der Texte von 40 Autorinnen und Autoren vorstellt.

Zapol hebt u. Es war kein Widerspruch, ein lettischer Autor zu sein und in russischer oder deutscher Sprache zu schreiben. Garleff Auch wenn Russisch die Sprache ihres kreativen Schaffens ist, spielen Lettisch und Englisch eine wichtige Rolle in ihrem Schaffensprozess. Ihnen liegen Alliterationen, akustische Assoziationen, phonetische Verwandtschaft, Echo-Effekte sowie Spiegelungen und Doppelungen zugrunde.

Uallik flirts with naive poetry and primitivism, balancing on the edge of art brut, coming into contact with the necroinfantile experiments of Yuri Odarchenko and the oberiu group of Russian avantgardists. All this brings the author close to the Russian post-avant-garde the school of Sergei Buryukov and distinguishes him from other members of Orbita.

Gleichzeitig wird deutlich, dass der literarische Text nicht frei vom Einfluss der textexternen Mehrsprachigkeit bleibt. It is as if the poetry emerges from the story and language or vice versa in front of our eyes, thanks to its special, textually tangible form, a form that can express itself in tonality. Diese existieren sowohl in textexternen als auch textinternen Bereichen. Dabei ist zu beobachten, dass nicht so sehr manifeste als vielmehr latente Mehrsprachigkeit diese Texte kennzeichnet.

Interferenz der Sprachen z. Jahrhunderts vor einem mehrsprachigen Hintergrund. Viele unternahmen ihre ersten literarischen Schreibversuche nicht in der Muttersprache, sondern auf Polnisch bzw. Anders gesagt: dem Russischen kam die sogenannte konsul- tierende Funktion zu. Natalia Blum-Barth natalia. Bielefeld: Aisthesis. Blum-Barth, N. Literarische Mehrsprachigkeit. Versuch einer Typologie. Poietik der Mehrsprachigkeit.

Theorie und Techniken des multilin- gualen Schreibens. Heidelberg: Winter. Borisova, I. Osobennosti sovetskoj politiki s g. Chalitova, A. Yazykovaya politika v SSSR v — gg. Garleff, M. Berlin: Siedler Verlag, — Marbach am Neckar: Deutsche Schillergesellschaft. Kortchagin, K. Kostiucenko, A. Berlin: Logos. Kremnitz, G. Mehrsprachigkeit in der Literatur. Wien: Praesens Verlag. Kulbak, M. Childe Harold aus Disna. Berlin: Edition. Marten, H. Sprach en politik. Mierina, I. Lettland — Auswanderung, Einwanderung, Diaspora.

Rudnev, D. Schreiner, P. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Stoberski, Z. Historia literatury litewskiej: zarys Lingusitics Poland. Veser, R. Der litauische Dichter Tomas Venclova wird achtzig. Zapol, A. Auf Russisch geschriebene Gedichte lettischer Autoren. Riga: Neputns. Literature — Principally multilingual! Research on literary multilingualism is increasingly based on the assumption that literature per se is multilingual.

Recently, Till Dembeck has even called for a philology of multilingualism that would accommodate literary multilingualism in literary criticism. In so doing, I underline the transcend- ing character of literary multilingualism that expresses itself on various levels: linguistically, formally, medially and with respect to culture.

Thus, I aim to illustrate the enormous political potential of literary multilingualism. Concepts, such as national literature, literary field, but also literary studies and their institutions i. In the second part of this article, I discuss the difficulties that come with literary prizes, literary studies and the access to the literary field. These often express themselves as concrete problems for individuals who, for instance, have difficulties accessing the literary field.

Sie kann deshalb mit Steven G. Kellman als translinguale Autorin bezeichnet werden, d. Der Begriff literarische Mehrsprachigkeit kann sich dementsprechend auf die Literatur mehrsprachiger Autorinnen und Autoren beziehen. Mit diesem Buch, das neben Wien auch in Belgrad, Berlin und Sarajevo angesiedelt ist, hat sich die junge Autorin einerseits ein weiteres Mal in die deutschsprachige Literatur eingeschrieben.

Die manifeste Mehr- sprachigkeit entspricht damit dem linguistischen Begriff des code-switching. Bei der latenten Mehrsprachigkeit wird hingegen z. Auch z. Textstellen, die im Rahmen der Diegese offensichtlich in anderen Sprachen verfasst sind z. Vlasta a. Aus diesen metamehrsprachigen Hinweisen ergeben sich Verweise auf ver- schiedene Konzepte von Ein- und Mehrsprachigkeit.

Jahrhundert im Rahmen der Ausbildung nationaler Sprachen, Kulturen und Nationalstaaten propagiert wurde. Nicht zuletzt ist Steven G. Coca-Cola, refresh yourself! Preis Im Prozess bin ich aber draufgekommen, dass ich das Buch doch auf Deutsch brauche, weil ich hier lebe. Im deutschsprachigen Raum gibt und gab es Literaturpreise, die sich gezielt an nicht-deutschsprachige bzw.

Sievers ; Vlasta Disoski ; Schwarz In einem breiteren Kontext spielt dieser Preis bzw. Vlasta b und Zusammenfassung Jurydiskussion Tomer Gardi Sievers Jahrhundert entstanden bzw. Germa- nistik, Anglistik, Italianistik, Polonistik etc. Eine solche Philologie geht von der prinzipiellen Mehrsprachigkeit von Literatur aus, stellt das monolingual para- digm also quasi auf den Kopf. Letzterem kann aber bis zu einem gewis- sen Grad entgegengewirkt werden, z. Vlasta Sandra Vlasta savlasta uni-mainz.

Literaturverzeichnis Arndt, S. Arndt, D. Naguschewski, R. Stockhammer, eds. Anders-Sprachigkeit in der Literatur. Berlin: Kadmos, 7— Probleme der Poetik Dostoevskijs. Frankfurt am Main: Ullstein. Bernhard, T.

Wien: Edition Atelier. Damrosch, D. What is World Literature? Princeton: Princeton University Press. Dembeck, R. Parr, eds. New Tools for Literary Scholarship. Roundtable on Translation. McDonald, ed. Otobiography, Transference, Translation. Texts and Discussions with Jacques Derrida.

Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 93— Disoski, M. Ich mache Literatur und Punkt! Siller, S. Vlasta, eds. Wien: Praesens, — Einsprachigkeit, Mehrsprachigkeit, Sprachigkeit. Migrants and literature in Finland and Sweden. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society. Hassan, W. Translational Literature and the Pleasures of Exile. Translation, Adaptation, Circulation. Nach der Einsprachigkeit. Slavisch-deutsche Texte transkulturell. Berlin u. What is Translational Literature and How to Classify it?

The Translingual Imagination. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. Literature on the Move o. Belgrad: Rende. Salzburg: Residenz. Mein, eds. Kriegleder, E. Mengel, A. Wol- dan, eds. Wien: Praesens, — Otoo, S. Klagenfurter Rede zur Literatur Pellegrino, R. Pellegrino, S. Wien: Praesens, 71— Preis, T. Radaelli, G. Sprachwechsel bei Elias Canetti und Ingeborg Bachmann. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. Schahadat, S. Bielefeld: Transcript, 19— Literatur und Migration um das Kulturzentrum exil.

Wien: Praesens. Schwarz, C. Ich bin ein begeisterter Deutscher. Sievers, W. Sievers, ed. Wien: edition exil. Sievers, S. Fourteen National Contexts in Europe and Beyond. Simonek, S. Doschek, S. Simonek, eds. Die Auferweckung des Wortes. Stempel, ed. Trojanow, I. Ade, Chamisso-Preis? A History of Translation. London, New York: Routledge.

Der Autor und sein Alter. Vertlib, Ich und die Eingeborenen. Dresden: Thelem, 29— Vlasta, S. Gratzke, M. Hutton, C. Whitehead, eds. Oxford u. Leben, A. Koron, eds. Wolf, U. Wovon wir reden, wenn wir von mehrsprachiger Lyrik reden. Website Ingeborg-Bachmann- Preis Archiv The novel deals with the revolution in the current Estonian territory, which was at that time a province of the Russian Empire.

The novel was written shortly before the outbreak of World War II and trans- lated into Estonian 60 years later after the end of the Soviet era. The complex- ity and the fluctuation of the contextual elements between the storyline of the novel, the time of its writing and the time of the translation make the novel a rewarding object of research into settings of multilingualism in everyday life.

The article focuses on the manifest and latent forms of multilingualism, on the functions of the local languages, as well as on the question whether it helps to analyse language use in real life situations. It also looks at how local multilin- gualism, dominated by three local languages — German, Russian and Estonian — has been translated from one local language German into another local lan- guage Estonian.

The examples chosen in the article highlight some regulari- ties in the use of the local and other languages, and offer a cultural-historical and socio-political interpretation of the use of multilingualism. Auch Literatur kann hierbei als eine Quelle herangezogen werden. Wilpert Spannung wird zwischen Ovelacker und dem estnischen Bauern Koiri Jaan aufgebaut.

Die Geschichte endet mit gegenseitiger Vergebung der deutschbalti- schen und estnischen Hauptfiguren. Lukas vgl. Bis zum Anfang des Hennoste Die durch die Christianisierung im Jahrhundert benutzt vgl. Lukas Hiio Obwohl im multiethnischen russischen Kaiserreich, wozu das Territorium des heutigen Estlands seit dem Woodworth, Tannberg Raun — Seit der Mitte des Raag Als einzige Staatssprache fungierte Estnisch.

Obwohl man also vor dem zweiten Weltkrieg noch von Estnisch, Russisch und Deutsch als drei Ortssprachen sprechen kann vgl. Jahrhunderts genoss Estnisch wieder den Status der Staatssprache Estlands und alle anderen Sprachen wurden als Fremdsprachen bezeichnet Sprachgesetz Pistohlkors Jahrhundert weniger oder nur in bestimmten Bereichen benutzt und kommen im Roman weniger oder gar nicht vor.

Deswegen konzentriert sich der vorlieg- ende Beitrag auf die sogenannten drei Ortssprachen. Dembeck, Parr So kommen im Roman neben den manifest anders- sprachigen Passagen, die auch auf der Textebene in einer anderen Sprache stehen, auch latent anderssprachige Passagen vor, die auf Deutsch wiederge- geben sind. Obwohl die Handlung meistens an der Sprachgrenze zwischen Estnisch und Lettisch stattfindet, wird Lettisch nicht analysiert, weil es im Roman kaum vorkommt.

Die anderssprachigen Passagen sind mit wenigen Ausnahmen auf Deutsch wiedergegeben. Es handelt sich vorwiegend um Bezeichnungen der Prozesse oder Agenten der Lokalgeschichte in der Handlungszeit. Der einzige Baltizismus, zu dem im Roman gesagt wird, dass es 13 Mehr dazu siehe Bender 35— Auch bei den Ortsbezeichnungen kommt Mehrsprachigkeit vor, die mit dem jeweiligen kulturellen und politischen Kontext im Zusammenhang steht. Dies betrifft nicht nur die Beschreibungen aus der deutschbaltischen Sicht und die Diskussionen auf Deutsch, sondern z.

Im damali- gen Deutschland herrschten wiederum nationalistische Stimmungen, ebenso waren die deutschsprachigen Namensformen dem potentiellen Leser bekannter als die estnischen Formen. Die Transkription der russischen Namen unterscheidet sich vom Roman, so steht z. Auch latent wird der russischsprachigen Handlung nur wenig Aufmerksam- keit gewidmet, z. Hierbei soll daran erinnert werden, dass auch die Deutschbalten mit der offiziellen Sprachhierarchie mit Russisch an der Spitze nicht zufrieden waren und das Deutsche aus ihrer Sicht weiterhin an der ersten Stelle lag.

Die damalige politische und kulturelle Situation wird aber durchaus auch mit manchen russischsprachigen Elementen illustriert. Juhan , Kristjan , Tiiu , Mart Neben den bereits beschriebenen deutschen Ortsnamen werden im Roman bei manchen Orten die estnischsprachigen Formen benutzt.

Auf dieselbe Weise wie Ovelacker mit den deutschsprachigen Namen assozi- iert wird, ist die estnische Hauptfigur Koiri-Jaan mit dem estnischen Kontext, der auch durch die Namen reflektiert wird, verbunden. Wie auch aus diesen Beispielen ersichtlich wird, benutzt Schaper bei Namen oft die alte bzw.

Jahrhunderts bis zur Mitte des Jahrhunderts in Gebrauch. Durch die Verwendung dieser Orthographie zeigt Schaper die Ausrichtung auf die deut- sche Leserschaft. Hofnamen vor, wie z. Da der Hintergrund des Namens im Roman nicht weitergegeben wird, bekommt der estnischspra- chige Leser dies mit, der deutschsprachige aber nicht. Dies ist nicht der einzige Fall, bei dem die estnischen Namen den Deutsch- balten unklar bleiben, z.

Dies scheint ein weiteres Mittel zur Darstellung der gesellschaftlichen Beziehungen und der Sprach- Hierarchien zu sein. Neben den betrachteten manifesten Beispielen tritt Estnisch im Roman auch in latenten Mehrsprachigkeitsformen auf. Manchmal wird dabei expli- zit darauf hingewiesen, dass es sich um das Estnische handelt, manchmal nicht.

Hier wird im Text gesagt, dass es sich um das Estnische handelt. Ihm ging die Bedeutung nicht auf. Er sah den Platz und die Menschen [ Vermutlich handelt es sich auch hierbei um Estnisch, aber gesagt wird es nicht. Die Sprachfrage ist im Roman auch als thematisches Element wichtig.

Sie taten, was denen als schwere Verfehlung wider das koloniale Gesetz galt: sie heirateten ins Volk der Letten und Esten. Wie sprach der Verwalter mit ihm? Estnisch, so unvollkommen der Westfale das beherrschte. Sie hat- ten ja nicht die Umgangsformen von Herrschaften und konnten das Ansehen des Deutschen nur vermindern. Schaper sah als Zielgruppe seines Romans die deutschsprachige Leserschaft und die Tatsache, dass es kaum manifeste Erscheinungen der Mehrsprachigkeit gibt, kann mit der Orientiertheit an einsprachige Leser sowie mit der Schreibzeit im Zusammenhang stehen.

Die Funktion des Estnischen besteht darin, den kul- turellen Kontext und die gesellschaftlichen Beziehungen, aber auch den gesell- schaftlichen Wandel zu illustrieren. Somit wird die Mehrsprachigkeit als ein Aspekt der Standeshierarchie abgebildet und zugleich hinterfragt. Maris Saagpakk saagpakk tlu.

Arens, O. Edzard Schaper. Bender, R. Parr, Hrsg. Mehrsprachige Literatur. Zur Einleitung. Sakslase romaan Gierlich, E. Zum Geleit. Sauerland, E. Gierlich, Hrsg. Haug, T. Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus. Hennoste, T. Eesti keele sotsioperioodid. Erelt, M. Sedrik, E. Hiio, T. Leppik, Hrsg. Iliste, I. Vergleichende Betrachtungen zu Edzard Schaper. Lepa, C. Sommerhage, Hrsg. Sonderheft: Edzard Schaper. Alteuropa und die moderne Gesellschaft. Lepik, V. Edzard Schaper ja tema looming.

Lukas, L. Piiririik — Eesti kujund Edzard Schaperi loomingus. Edzard Schaperi lepitusromaan. Schaper, Timukas. Liivimaa klassika. Balti kirjakultuuri ajalugu I. Keskused ja kandjad. Ezergailis, G. Otto-Sprunck, A. Pistohlkors, G. Deutsche Geschichte im Osten Europas. Berlin: Siedler. Raag, R. Talurahva keelest riigikeeleks.

Tartu: Atlex. Rahvastiku koostis ja korteriolud. III rahvaloenduse andmed, Vol. Venestamine Eestis Tannberg, B. Woodworth, Hrsg. Tartu: Eesti Ajalooarhiiv, — Rosenwald, A. Multilingual America. Language and the Making of American Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rutten, G. Unraveling multilingual- ism in times past. The interplay of language contact, language use and language planning. Schaper, E. Der Henker. Leipzig: Insel. Katrin Kaugver. Riigi Teataja , Riigi Teataja , 23, Eesti Statistika.

Rahvaarv — Tannberg, T. Tartu: Eesti Ajalooarhiiv, 5— Vokk, E. Saksa sulg kirjeldab eesti elu. Wilpert, G. Deutschbaltische Literaturgeschichte. Accordingly, her works originated in a contact zone of different languages and cultures. This article highlights her novels Helena and Penelopa as examples of transcultural writing and analyses the manifestations and functions of multilingualism in these works.

The multilingual- ism can be seen in these novels both explicitly and implicitly: in addition to Russian, other languages such as Armenian, Estonian, English, and Latin are used, with numerous indirect references to these languages. Furthermore, various references to world-famous novels such as Ulysses by James Joyce and Master and Margarita by Michail Bulgakov are analysed. Danach widmete sie sich ganz der Literatur.

Hierbei hat wohl die Tatsache, dass sie die russische Sprache als Sprache des Selbstausdrucks betrachtete, die wichtigste Rolle gespielt. A portion of Armenian citizens opted for higher education in Russian universities and technical schools. Kotjuh Petersburg erschien. Sie starb nach einer schweren Krankheit. Kartau Die vorliegende Studie versucht deshalb, dieses Desiderat zu beheben und ihre Werke in den internationalen Kontext zu stellen. Als erstes werden ihre Romane als Beispiele des transkul- turellen Schreibens analysiert.

Sicher, ich lese immer wieder auch Dostojevskij und Bulgakov. Und dennoch kann ich nicht sagen, dass alle diese Autoren mich inspiriert haben, denn die Inspiration kann man nur von der Perfektion bekommen, [ Viel weniger hat die globale Forschung ihre Aufmerksamkeit den kleineren Sprachen und Literaturen gewidmet. Neben der deutschsprachigen Lukas 23—32 hat auch die rus- sischsprachige Literatur in Estland estn. Erst zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts hat man angefangen, diese Literatur als ein Beispiel des Schreibens zwischen den Sprachen und Kulturen zu kontex- tualisieren ebd.

Als transkulturelle Literatur wird im Kontext dieser Studie im Allgemeinen das Schaffen der Autoren verstanden, die ihre Werke in einer Sprache verfassen, die nicht ihre Muttersprache ist und die die Erfahrung des kulturellen Anders- Seins reflektieren. Belobrovtseva Anders verhielt sich mit der Migration aus den Sowjetrepubliken nach dem II. In den —70er und er Jahren spielte jedoch die freiwillige Arbeitsmigration die Hauptrolle.

Diese Thematik ist heute wohl nicht mehr ganz aktuell. In der transkulturellen Literatur werden diese Erfahrungen des Lebens zwi- schen zwei Kulturen oft thematisiert und es wird der Prozess der Aneignung einer neuen Kultur literarisch analysiert. Diese kulturelle Selbstfindung bzw. Etliche Male werden auch kulturelle Vergleiche zwischen Armenien und Estland gezogen.

Diese Sprache entpuppt sich aber als schwierig. Die Wurzeln einer solchen Betrachtungsweise liegen jedoch wohl bei dem sogenannten postmodernen Turn in den er Jahren, der die tradi- tionelle Zeit- und Raumauffassung relativierte. So kann die Literatur zu einer Manifestation von verschiedenen Sprachen und Kulturen werden. Jahrhundert erfahren habe Spengler-Axiopoulos Illustriert werden hier sowohl die Wortkargheit der Esten als auch bestimmte Sprechweise der Nicht-Esten, die die Landessprache nicht besonders gut beherrschen.

P, Hervorhebung A. Es ist nicht ganz klar, in welcher Sprache Penelope mit ihren Eltern kommuniziert, doch vermutlich ist es Armenisch. So hatten sie sich auch kennen gelernt. Denn implizit werden in einem Text verschiedene kulturelle Traditionen ein- gebunden, die sich etwa im Textaufbau, in der Verwendung von bestimmten Hinweisen auf andere kulturell relevante Texte oder in bestimmten kulturel- len Meta- oder Archecodes zeigen Raud — Willms und Zemanek spre- chen in diesem Zusammenhang auch von intertextueller bzw.

Heero — Deshalb scheint es logisch, dass die beiden hier behandelten Romane einen Bezugspunkt in der Weltliteratur haben. Dargestellt werden nicht nur Ereignisse dieses Tages, sondern auch Gedanken, Vorstellungen, Assoziationen, die sowohl Bloom als auch die anderen Hauptfiguren dieses Romans erleben Schwarz 2—4. Am Morgen war alles in Ordnung. Und der Teufel hat dich geritten, Penelope, am anderen Ende anzufangen. Bei Gott, das hat etwas Fatales. Die Parallelen im Aufbau dieser Romane sind sofort zu sehen.

Bulgakov — Aigi Heero aheero tlu.

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